Annals of Human and Social Sciences <p><strong>Research of Social Sciences (SMC-Private) Limited (ROSS) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0. 0218990)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences is a <strong>Double-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS) en-US Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2790-6795 Effects of Test Anxiety on Academic Performance of Under Graduate University Students <p>Anxiety has been a key topic in psychological research for many decades. It is commonly defined as a state of excessive fear, worry and apprehension accompanied by physiological symptoms relating to the arousal of the autonomic nervous system. The current study was carried out to find out effect of test anxiety on students’ academic performance. The current study was descriptive in nature and survey method was used to collect the data. 1192 students of department of education of three universities (Women University of Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir Bagh, University of Poonch Rawalakot AJ&amp;K and University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad were the population of the study.. 300 students selected randomly were the sample of the study. A researcher adapted standardized questionnaire having five point Likert scale. Data was analyzed by using regression. It is concluded that anxiety before, during and after test has significant effect on academic performance. It is recommended that; friendly environment may be created before conducting the test.</p> Muhammad Asghar Ali Abida Muzffar Fouzia Tabassum Copyright (c) 2023 2022-03-17 2022-03-17 4 2 01 09 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)01 Syntactic Comparison of Traditional Courtyard and Modern Houses of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate the syntactic characteristics of traditional and modern house plans in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan for the syntactic parameters influencing privacy. The design of homes has always considered the requirements of the people who live in them. Geographies, cultures, and communities have a diverse spatial configuration for the homes. Livelihood spaces have an established spatial order reflecting the society, social order as well as the personalities of the dwellers. This research used simulation and Floor plan drawings as the primary source of data for justifiable permeability graph-based space syntax analysis. Results show that modern houses offer better options for privacy due to the higher value of relative asymmetry (0.29) and greater tendency toward asymmetry as compared to traditional courtyard house layouts. The home with asymmetrical designs includes many control spaces, so entering other rooms requires crossing through the control spaces.</p> Ubaid Ullah Shabbir Ullah Iqra Sajjad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-17 2023-03-17 4 2 10 17 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)02 Impact of Online Language Games on teaching of Single and Double Prepositions through Primary Level Students of Lahore <p>This study is aimed at finding the impact of online games on teaching single and double preposition at primary level students to find potential evidence if the use of preposition gets improved in the students or not. The nature of the study was quantitative. Quasi-experimental research design was used for the study. This study involved only one experimental group. Pre-test Post-test were conducted to determine improvement of in learning of single and double prepositions after the intervention of online language games were introduced. Achievement test consisted of multiple-choice questions. Paired t-test was used to evaluate the significance of the difference in the outcome of experimental group. Result of this study suggested that online language games lay a significant impact on learning of double and single preposition by the primary level students. Results also further reflected that although both the genders showed improvement in their learning of single and double preposition after being taught via online language games but female students produced more significant results as compared to their male counterparts.</p> Waqasia Naeem Shumaila Ahmad Sidra Haroon Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-17 2023-03-17 4 2 18 24 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)03 Effect of Explicit Teaching Modeling on Academic Achievement of Primary Level Students in Mathematics: An Experimental Study <p>This study intended to examine the effects of Explicit Teaching Modelling in the teaching of Mathematics at primary level students in District Gujrat Pakistan along with an effort to find out the achievements in Math on the scale of Bloom’s Taxonomy (i.e. Remembering, Understanding &amp; Applying). The purpose of this work was to measure and compare the effect of Explicit Teaching Modeling on achievements of Mathematics at primary level students and to discover the score through achievement tests. The study was experimental in nature and design was Pre test, Post test Control Group. The population of the study was primary level school children in Govt. Girls High School Kunjah and the sample of research was comprised of 60 students of 5th class. The two groups Experimental and Control stood correlated based on annual results of Mathematics of their 4th grade. Experimental Group was taught by Explicit Teaching Modeling and Control Group with the Lecture Method. The scores obtained from Pre-test and Post test groups were the data of the study. Statistical analysis was done by applying the independent t- test. The results proved that Explicit Teaching Modeling was more effective when contrast with the Lecture Method in the Mathematics at primary level. It was recommended that application of Explicit Teaching Modeling has a considerable value for the Mathematics learners.</p> Adeeba Naseer Sundho Muhammad Asghar Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-17 2023-03-17 4 2 25 35 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)04 Political Discourse and Ideology: A Semiological Discourse Analysis of Pakistani Urdu and English Newspapers <p>Semiotic discourses are an important genre of print media. They are considered a graphic language and are intended for everyone. Caricatures have become a compelling technique of promoting the target audience's chosen ideologies. This study analyses the semiotic discourses of one Urdu (Jung) and one English (Dawn) newspaper from May 1, 2022 to June 30, 2022. The current study adopts an integrated methodology. In semiotic discourses, both visual and verbal activities have been decoded and utilized. The analysis of the researchers has been validated by focus group talks. According to the research, both English and Urdu newspapers are extremely polarized and create semiotic discourses with their target audience in mind. Economy, national politics, foreign politics, social issues, and Pak-army representation are some of the emerging themes in Dawn. Semiological discourses are among the best venues for ideological investment, and the dissemination of desired ideologies in Urdu and English media is polarized.</p> Kanwal Hassan Muzaffar Qaadar Ali Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-17 2023-03-17 4 2 36 45 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)05 The Changing of Guards: Domestic Policies of General Ayub Khan Era During 1958-69 <p>Since the emergence of Pakistan, the state faces number of political and economic instabilities, however, in the 1960s, Pakistan was moving towards modernization under the leadership of General Ayub Khan, who adhered to a progressive-liberal and modernist interpretation of Islam. The key objective of the study is to explore the domestic policies as well as reforms during Ayub Khan era that showed the various positive consequences of the country. During 1958 and 1965, Ayub government followed authoritarian Islamic policy, which demonstrated his openness and liberalism toward Islam as well as public policies actively supported constitutional, legal, and social reform that moved the country towards modernization. Primary and secondary sources have been consulted through the descriptive research approaches.</p> Muhammad Arif Imran Ali Zubair Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-17 2023-03-17 4 2 46 58 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)06 Exploring Emotional, Problem Focus and Dysfunctional Coping Strategies and Life Satisfaction among Married and Unmarried Spinal Cord Injury Patients <p>The research objective is to investigate the connection between life satisfaction and various coping methodologies, including emotions, problems, and dysfunctional coping skills among married and unmarried patients suffering from spinal cord injuries (SCI). A00 spinal cord individuals with a marital status ratio of 29% participated. From Paraplegic Center, Peshawar, the sample was selected using the purposive sampling technique. The Life satisfaction and Brief Cope scale were used. The findings of the study indicate that life gratification stood considerably and progressively associated with emotional coping (r = .32, p&lt;.01) and meaningful and undesirably associated with problem-focused cope (r = .27, p&lt;.01) and dysfunctional cope (r = .23, p&lt;.05). Emotion focused cope considerably and absolutely while problem-focused cope adversely predicts life gratification. In addition, dysfunctional coping negatively predicts life satisfaction but was not statistically significant, and the model explains 21% of the variance. The findings of the study showed that emotionfocused coping and problem-focused coping was significantly high among married spinal cord injury patients than among single spinal cord injury patients (p&lt;.01). The current study findings reflect a dire need for the management of these psychological problems by using different kinds of evidence-based psychotherapies such as Narrative exposure therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and family therapy. Mixed methods, i.e., Qualitative and quantitative methods, should be used in future studies to explore the phenomenon in detail</p> Shakir Ullah Bangash Hayat Muhammad Mehtabullah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-17 2023-03-17 4 2 59 70 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)07 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Language used in Judicial Family Courts <p>This study examines discourse analysis and illustrates the method by examining various aspects of language used in Family Courts, particularly in the high court. It is hypothesized that the spouses are the most powerful and influential person in the courtroom. The judge, it is reasonable to assume, wields the most power in a courtroom. Aims to see if the use of agency roles during cross-examination gives lay witnesses substantively just treatment in terms of narrative and stance freedom. The research focuses on the Judicial Family Court case and includes interviews with judges, counsel, and the Director of Public Prosecutions. There is a conclusive study that supports the detection of dishonest indicators in the reported person's statements during the courtroom discourse and investigation process.</p> Usama Muneer Amna Aslam Muhammad Akram Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 4 2 71 83 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)08 Racism in the United States in the 21st Century: An analysis of the South Asian community <p>This study aims to discuss the hate crimes and instances of racism against the Sikh and Muslim communities from South Asia in America after the post-9/11 period and the strategies that the South Asian community has adopted to fight back the Racism in America against them. The history of racism in America was established with the advent of enslaved Black people from Africa in the 18th century. In the 1960s, Black Africans launched the civil rights movement to reclaim their civil rights and they won. But racism was not eliminated from America against them. The immigration act of 1960 paved the way for the immigration of different communities in America. The South Asian community also grew because of this act. The earliest immigrants came from India in 1960s, immigrants from Pakistan in 1980 and, in 2000 the immigrants from Bangladesh. This study includes Desk Research and the secondary sources. It is argued in this research that the incident of 9/11 has increased racial discrimination among the South Asia diaspora in America, due to which they are being subjected to hate crimes. It is the need of time to counter such incidents in USA if it is further promoted the negative image of USA will increase in Asian specially the Muslim countries.</p> Asad Raza Talpur Tahir Khan Jalil Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 4 2 84 100 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)09 Online Business: Challenges for College Students with and without Disabilities <p>Major objectives of study were to find out perception of college students about online business and to identify the challenges in online business. This study intended to explore the challenges of college students with or without disabilities which they experience in online business. This study was qualitative and exploratory. The sample included college students with or without disabilities (N=15), , selected through purposive sampling technique. Self-developed semi-structured interview was used as an instrument. Validity of instrument was assured by expert opinion (N=03). Reliability of instrument was confirmed through an extensive literature review. Data was analyzed through thematic analysis. Three major themes were drawn from the thematic analysis i.e perception of students, challenges in online business, and strategies for students regarding online business. Findings revealed maximum participants reported online business is not easy for them because of financial shortages. Study recommended the support of government to promote online business for college students.</p> Kashif Iqbal Adeel Abbas Nayar Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 4 2 101 114 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)10 Redefining the Role of Women in Pakistan: Zardari’s Effort to Empower Women through Constitutional Development <p>The role of women in Pakistan has been a topic of discussion and debate for decades. The democratic government under president Asif Ali Zardari contributed his efforts to empower women in all sectors of life by introducing constitutional and political developments. The study examines the significant contributions of the Zardari government to empower women in Pakistan through constitutional and political development and also explains the effects of these initiatives on women’s empowerment and protection in Pakistan. Since the independence, both democratic and military rulers have contributed their efforts to protect and empower women however, the Zardari government provides constitutional protection to women without any discrimination by introducing several laws. The 18th amendments offer massive opportunities for women for political participation and employment. The key sources of the study are published materials like books, articles, newspapers, and reports however preferences are given to authentic and reliable sources. The study finds out that the Zardari government introduced multiple initiatives to empower women in Pakistan, but faced several issues in the implementation of these acts. The study recommends more legal protection and societal awareness to empower women in the true sense.</p> Ghulam Qasim Ali Shan Shah Najaf Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 4 2 115 124 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)11 Violation of Convention on the Rights of Children (CRC) in United States of America <p>This study critically analysis the contents of Convention on the Rights of Children (CRC) and their violations in United States of America. The prevalent child rights violations in the USA include early marriage, low education attainment, risk of domestic and sexual violence are all interlinked to early child marriage and child rights violations. For the purpose of exploring the research question, the researchers reviewed mainly the case laws and the research work available on the subject. The methodology of the research is secondary. After diving deep into the subject and analysis of the literature the researchers came out with result that USA is violating the contents of CRC that must be discouraged and cured by following certain parameters. Policy and decision-making, leadership, and reforms should be addressed in order to guarantee child rights violations to be undermined</p> Ammara Khanam Shazia Hassan Tajwar Waseem Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 4 2 125 132 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)12 Developing Reading Comprehension among Students through Metacognitive Instructional Strategy <p>This research conducted to explore the metacognitive instructional strategy of self assessment effect on student’s reading comprehension in a public school of Punjab in the context of Pakistan. The objective of the current study was to find out; the effect of metacognitive self-assessment strategy on student’s reading comprehension at 7th grade. The current study used experimental design that involves the two groups (experimental and control groups) pre-test and post-test was adopted. The experimental group treatment was given by self-assessment metacognitive strategy and control group was used the traditional lecture method. The sample consisted of 58 students of a public girls' high school. Reading comprehension test for data collection was developed by the researcher and Mean, standard deviation, t-test were used for analysis. Results indicated that those students given the treatment attained higher scores compared to control group students. So, it is suggested that metacognitive instructional strategy should be adopted by instructors on a regular basis in their English language classroom.</p> Misbah Noor Ghazal Khalid Siddiqui Ayaz Muhammad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-19 2023-03-19 4 2 133 141 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)13 Perception of Parents About Higher Education for their Children with Hearing Impairment <p>This research aimed to explore the perception of the parents of children with hearing impairment (CWHI) for higher education. They have to face many problems in selecting the pathway for CWHI. There are limited opportunities for the students with hearing impairment after secondary education. That's why it is very important to know about their perception regarding future concerns of their children. In this quantitative research, the descriptive methodology was used in designing a self-made questionnaire to assess the parent’s perception. Convenient sampling was used to collect the data from the parents of intermediate class students who were about to decide the future field of their children. Data were collected from 115 parents from colleges of Punjab and then analyzed by using descriptive as well inferential analysis. Response of a majority of the parents was positive towards Higher Education of their children for the better life. This research highlighted a new direction for arranging Higher education programs for hearing impaired students.</p> Ghazala Ishrat Faisal Anis Asma Kanwal Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-19 2023-03-19 4 2 142 156 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)14 Role of NAB in Eliminating Corruption from Pakistan: A Critical Analysis <p>Government and good governance are essential for social and economic progress. Nonetheless, Pakistan’s poor reputation in international relations makes these characteristics outdated in Pakistan. In most cases, corruption is a likely result of circumstances such as desire and materialistic greed, higher degrees of governmental and market monopolization, low levels of democracy, poor civic engagement, and opaque political processes. The acceptance of corruption has grown through time even though it is pervasive in the nation. The goal of this study is to examine corruption in Pakistan, concentrating on the National Accountability Bureau (NAB), the primary anti-corruption agency in the country. The study examines various causes for the prevalence of corruption in Pakistan and strategies to reduce it. The study uses doctrinal qualitative analysis to situate the research within the ethical, legal and social parameters. The research methodology adopted is evaluative, interpretive and analytical. The study finds that NAB remained ineffective to curb the prevailing corruption in Pakistan. This study recommends that corruption in Pakistan would be reduced by exposing corrupt practices, maintaining an honest and responsible public sector, aiding in the cessation of unethical behavior, and ensuring that public sector employees act in the public interest.</p> Muhammad Imran Ghulam Murtiza Muhammad Sulyman Akbar Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 4 2 157 169 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)15 Covid-19 Outbreak: Current Scenario of Pakistan <p>A COVID-19 epidemic was initially discovered in Wuhan City, China, at the end of December 2019. China was the origin of this, and it quickly expanded to 209 other nations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America, and Pakistan. The key objective of the study was to explore the current scenario of COVID-19 in Pakistan. Post-positivism research philosophy was used. A sample of 30 individuals was taken for the study through purposive sampling method. Semi-structure interview was developed based questions related to current scenario of COVID-19 in Pakistan. Interview was based on five (05) leading questions. Researcher personally collected data. All Standard operating procedure (SOPs) were followed while collecting data. The findings of the study reveal that death toll has topped 50,000 and there have been more than a million afflicted people worldwide. Numerous initiatives have been made globally to manage COVID-19. Pakistan, despite its limited resources, has taken rigorous precautions to stop the virus from spreading, including the establishment of specialized hospitals, testing labs, quarantine facilities, awareness campaigns, and lockdowns. We stressed the initiatives the administration has taken to deal with this risky situation. Moreover, the findings of the study depicts that Punjab with 1493, Gilgit Baltistan 210 and Khyber PakhtunKwah 405 confirmed cases and declared the most affected region in Pakistan. The study recommended that people may be followed strictly the Standard operating Procedure (SOPs).</p> Ishrat Fatima Faheem Khan Shahzad Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 4 2 170 178 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)16 British Balochistan: A Study of the Role and Impact of Judicial Commissioners under Colonial Rule <p>This paper presents a historical analysis of the judicial mechanism in British Balochistan, with a specific focus on the role of judicial commissioners. The paper argues that the role of judicial commissioners in Balochistan was central to the functioning of the judicial system and that their decisions had a significant impact on the lives of the local population. The paper also highlights some of the key challenges that the judicial system faced, such as linguistic and cultural barriers, and the tension between customary and colonial law. The Khanate of Kalat had a wide range of conflict resolution procedures, which reflected the region's complex legal and cultural environment. These systems, which were created to guarantee that disputes were settled fairly and justly, were frequently adapted to certain types of disputes. Overall, the paper contributes to our understanding of the history of Balochistan and the role of the British colonial authorities in shaping its legal system.</p> Gul Hasan Jalal Faiz Ali Azeem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 4 2 179 189 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)17 Organizational Stress Antecedents and Emotional Intelligence Role in Pakistani Private Bankers' Organizational Well-Being After Covid-19 <p>The present study examines the organizational wellbeing among banking employees that may affect due to organizational stress antecedents, which may arise due to COVID-19, Hyderabad, Pakistan. In this research, cross-sectional data is used to conclude the results with the assistance of an online survey questionnaire based on a convenience sampling technique. From 350 raw samples, 252 usable answers proceed with final results by applying structural equation model (SEM) for the data analysis. The finding explores a significant and positive influence of organizational stress antecedents and emotional intelligence towards organizational wellbeing and its outcomes in the pandemic era. The study provides analytical knowledge about the factors that play an essential role in managing organizational wellbeing. This research study may offer a new vision to the policymakers and banking sector planners in Pakistan to provide the specific consideration and develop such an environment that can help the employees cope with the current pandemic situation of Covid 19. This study is original, empirically confirming the influence of organizational stress antecedents and emotional intelligence on organizational wellbeing and its outcomes during COVID-19 in the private banking sector.</p> Sadia Anwar Abdul Qadir Patoli Ghulam Murtaza Lahbar Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 4 2 190 204 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)18 Effect of Collaborative Learning on Conceptual Understanding ability in Mathematics among 5th Grade Neglected Children <p>Conceptual understanding is a fundamental component of learning as it allows students to develop a deep and meaningful understanding of a subject. This is especially true in subjects like mathematics, where understanding the principles and logic behind formulas and equations is crucial particularly for neglected children. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of collaborative learning on the conceptual understanding ability of 5th grade neglected children in mathematics and to explore the beliefs of students about mathematics and the teaching of mathematics in collaborative learning settings. This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study involved 60 students of fifth-grade from Child Protection School Lahore, divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group received collaborative learning treatment, while the control group used traditional learning methods for two weeks. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using pre and post-tests and structured interviews. Results showed that the experimental group performed better on mathematic achievement test than the control group, and their beliefs about mathematics improved. The research findings indicated that collaborative learning is a more efficient approach for enhancing the conceptual understanding abilities of 5th grade students compared to traditional learning methods. The study recommended the widespread adoption of this approach for educational rehabilitation of neglected children throughout the Punjab.</p> Moghees Ahmad Ashiq Hussain Dogar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-21 2023-03-21 4 2 205 213 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)19 Liking and Disliking Factors about going to School perceived by the Parents of Children with Special needs enrolled in Special Schools of Lahore City <p>Online business has been turned into an effective opportunity for students, especially at This paper aimed to investigate the liking and disliking factors of school-going children with special perceived by their parents and to compare the liking and disliking of school-going special needs children. The quantitative research approach was applied by the researchers to complete the study. 40 parents of school-going children with special needs residents of Lahore city were selected as a sample by using a stratified sampling technique for this research. One close-ended self-constructed reliable questionnaire (Cronbach Alpha=.84) was used by the researchers (Cronbach Alpha=.84). The results pinpointed liking to do activities in the school more than disliking (liking score= 83.7500 and disliking score=52.5500). There is no significant difference in parental views based on their gender about the total liking (t=.388, df=38 and p=.700) and disliking factors (t=.788, df=38, and p=.436) and there are no significant differences in the liking and disliking of students with special needs based on their disabilities about going to school. Researchers recommended that reinforcement should be given to the special needs students to maintain their likeness for attending school.</p> Hina Fazil Attia Zulfiqar Hifza Nawaz Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-22 2023-03-22 4 2 214 226 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)20 Improving Stress Levels and Resilience through Integrated Islamic Art Interventions in Undergraduate University Students <p>The current research was planned to investigate the efficacy of integrated Islamic Art Interventions on stress and resilience among undergraduate university students. After screening on Stress levels with Students Stress Inventory, 10 participants were selected with moderate to severe stress from a public sector university. Furthermore another questionnaire were also used to measure the resilience which was a Brief Resilience Scale. The responses on questionnaires were taken before intervention and also post intervention. The results were generated and analyzed through SPSS (26 Version). The results of paired sample t-test indicate that Islamic Art Interventions significantly decrease the stress levels and significantly increasing the resilience levels among undergraduate university students. This carries implications for psychologists and educationists for using Islamic Art Interventions for improving the academic and personal life issues in the student population</p> Saria Rafiq Kiran Bashir Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 4 2 227 235 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)21 Development and Validation of Patriarchal Beliefs Scale in Pakistani Culture <p>Present research aimed to develop and validate a conceptually and psychometrically reliable and culturally relevant measure for patriarchal beliefs in Pakistani Culture. Patriarchy imposes preconceptions of male and female behavior, which reinforces the unequal power differences between men and women by giving more importance to men. The items were generated based on literature review and themes that emerged from the interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with experts. The scale was administered on the sample from general population (18-70 years) from all over the Pakistan using convenient sampling. Principal component factor analyses were carried out for scale development. For the final form of the scale, items with factor loadings &gt;.30 on the initial factors for PBS were chosen. Before performing factor analysis, various tests were used to ensure that the data were suitable. Three factors were extracted based on promax rotation. CFA was performed to confirm the factor Structure Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed. Scale was finalized with 37 items comprising 3 factors.</p> Maria Muzaffar Janjua Anila Kamal Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-25 2023-03-25 4 2 236 249 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)22 Preschool Education: Impact on Child’s Academic Performance at Grade 5th in Private Sectors <p>Preschool education was a great challenge for teachers, parents, institutes and also for society. The purpose of this study has to discuss the importance of preschool education and role of preschool education in enhancing the academic performance of student’s especially English literacy and mathematics skills. Research has shown that a preschool school child has good academic performance especially in English literacy and mathematics, and this is beneficial for their lengthy schooling and achievements of life. Teachers show a significant part in preschool education process. An indication to show that academic performance is important when children and teachers used in regular exercises’. In this qualitative and tentative study we aim to understand the different types of activities that are performed at grade 5th to enhance the academic performance of preschool child. The conclusions specify that the contributors showed constructive opinion about those children who has been attend the preschool education have good fluency in English literacy and mathematics skills. The remarkable theme that emerged from this study was that the quality of education and role of good curriculum plays an important role for enhancing the skills in children and the point which is needed to be focused is the initial teacher’s trainings and continuous professional development initiatives.</p> Fariha Zahid Khawaja Hisham Ul Hassan Iram Shahzadi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-25 2023-03-25 4 2 236 256 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)23 Role of Gardezi Family in Multan in Mughal Period (1526-1857) <p>Multan is a city of saints amongst which Syid Yousaf Gardezi was first to stay and spend his entire life serving the people of Multan. Gardezi family has been socially and politically very active since their arrival in Multan. Qualitative and descriptive research with textual criticism, evolution of primary and secondary sources, interviews of family members were done to get resourceful information. The family had good relations to Mughals, Suri sultans, Durani Empire Sultans and Nawab Muzaffar Khan also regarded the family alliance. Sikh Maharaja Ranjeet Singh also visited Darbar and regarded family socio political support. This paper throws light on the social, political and religious roles of Gardezi family in Multan specially in Mughal, Suri, Afghan and Sikh eras from attack of Babar 1526 to capture of Britishers 1849. This family holds the heritage of Multan in their personal libraries which should be preserved and use for future generations.</p> Sajid Maqsood Muhammad Shafique Nawaz Bhatti Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 4 2 257 264 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)24 An Exploration of Students’ Common Misconceptions in the Subject of Chemistry at Secondary Level <p>Ideas, things, or actions that support us comprehend the worlds around us are referred to as concepts. Students' misunderstandings are frequently deep-rooted, instruction-resistant barriers to scientific concept acquisition that persist even after instruction. Misconceptions are components of a larger knowledge system that contains a number of interrelated ideas that students use to make sense of their lives, and they are particularly frequent in courses that are abstract in nature. The current study explored misconceptions of three basic concepts which are present in the textbook of grade 9th and literature also supported that most of the misconceptions are found in these topics. Atomic structure, compound structure, and chemical bonding are examples of these ideas. The sample included 15 chemistry students. A semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data. The interview transcripts were transcribed. Different misconceptions were explored about these topics. Teachers should include strategies for resolving misconceptions in their curriculum into their teacher's curriculum, and according to the study's results, instructors should be given the tools they need to recognize their students' misconceptions and adopt remedial teaching techniques.</p> Sumaira Majeed Rizwan Ahmad Sohail Mazhar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 4 2 265 272 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)25 Impact of Non-Traditional Security Threats on Human Development Index: A Case Study of Pakistan <p>Non-traditional security threats negatively impact human development in developing countries like Pakistan. This study examines the impact of non-traditional security threats on Pakistan's Human Development Index (HDI) using data from 2016-2020. The study shows that non-traditional security threats, such as terrorism, natural disasters, and cybercrime, significantly reduce Pakistan's HDI. Compared to other countries facing similar non-traditional security threats, such as India and Bangladesh, Pakistan has a lower HDI ranking. Policymakers and practitioners must urgently address non-traditional security threats to promote human development. The study recommends a multi-faceted approach that includes improving security measures, strengthening disaster management systems, and promoting economic development. International cooperation and assistance can play a crucial role in addressing non-traditional security threats and promoting human development. The findings can inform policymakers and practitioners in designing effective policies and strategies to address non-traditional security threats and promote human development.</p> Munir Ahmad Khan Gasura Ali Abbas Alyas Ali Chaichi Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 4 2 273 278 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)26 Sudheran-jo-Thul: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives <p>The Sudhern-jo-Thul is located in Taluka Mula Katyar, District Tando Muhammad Khan along the eastern edge of present Indus River. Its western is the hilly and remaining surrounded are the agriculture area. The Thul / Stupa is built with mud clay and mud bricks, and broken vessels of plain and painted are scattered. This historical site is described by the historian but they have not provided the archaeological evidences in details. And also focus the current situation of the site. Researcher visited site many times collected archaeological evidences to analysis scientifically uses Global Position System (GPS), compass and survey tools to record the site as well as the photographic information was also collected. It has been resulted that the site belongs different chronology / cultural affiliation of the history of human. It shows the site is belonging to the 1st century BC to 2nd century AD. It has been suggested that necessary attention be given to the site and sign boars should be installed over the surface of the site and to save it.</p> Muhammad Hanif Laghari Saima Siddiqui Zaheer Ahmed Shaikh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 4 2 279 286 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)27 Exploring the Racial Discrimination against Chinese American Immigrants: Analysis of Celeste Ng’s Little Fires Everywhere in the Backdrop of Critical Race Theory <p>This article aims at the exploration of the novel Little Fires Everywhere by Celeste Ng as a reproduction of the racial discrimination and marginalization experienced by a Chinese immigrant woman, Bebe Chow who is unable to get the custody of her biological daughter May Ling Chow from a White American family of McCulloughs through a legal battle. Drawing insight from the certain concepts of Critical Race Theory inferred from the work of Delgado and Stefancic, the study ascertains that Bebe Chow offers a strong resistance against the injustice by kidnapping her daughter and leaving America for China. The findings of this study reveal that the Asian immigrants in America often face various oppressions embedded in the societal structure and legal system due to their marginalized status in the society. The study also encourages the immigrant women to offer resistance against their persecution on the basis of colour and race.</p> Qamar ul Zia Farah Hashmi Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 4 2 287 294 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)28 UNCLOS 1982: Comparative Analysis of Marine Pollution Prevention by Ships <p>The objective of this research article is to analyze the effectiveness of the regulations outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982 in preventing marine pollution caused by garbage from ships. Marine pollution threatens oceans and UNCLOS 1982 regulates ship garbage to prevent it. UNCLOS 1982's effectiveness in preventing marine pollution is debated. This study analyzes regulations and assesses implementation across countries. This research article has been applied qualitative research methodology. The study finds that although many countries have ratified UNCLOS 1982, there are significant differences in the implementation of the regulations among countries. Some countries have implemented the regulations effectively, while others have failed to do so. UNCLOS 1982 is crucial to prevent marine pollution by ship garbage. The study suggests improving implementation through stakeholder awareness, enforcement mechanisms, and monitoring. Countries must work together to prevent marine pollution caused by ship garbage</p> Nazar Hussain Asif Khan Rashid Wassan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-29 2023-03-29 4 2 295 308 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)29 Strategic Procurement Practices and Procurement Performance: A Practical Investigation of the Commercial Banks in Quetta <p>The study examines the key procurement strategies employed by banks, such as supplier evaluations, contract negotiations, and supplier performance metrics. The research also analyzes the impact of technology on procurement processes and how banks can collaborate with suppliers to improve performance and reduce costs. The study aims to provide insights into best practices for strategic procurement in commercial banks, including cost savings, increased supplier performance, and improved quality of goods and services. The findings of this research can help banks enhance their procurement processes, which can ultimately lead to increased profitability and customer satisfaction. Therefore, this study has been conducted to describe the vital role of procurement in the commercial banks of Quetta, Balochistan. This study involves procurement practices to know their best role in performing the various functions of the banks which includes the procurement process, establishment of the procurement plan, strategic procurement practices, supplier chain management, and procurement performance. The study was quantitative in nature. Non probability method in which convenience sampling technique was used to collect data via questionnaire from the commercial banks operating in Quetta. Furthermore, SMART PLS 4. Was used to analyses the data. The result of the study has proved that significant positive effect of relationships between strategic procurement and procurement performance. Furthermore, challenges related to procurement mediate the relationship between both constructs.</p> Zain Ul Sadiqeen Safi Ullah Safia Bano Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-03-31 2023-03-31 4 2 309 322 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)30 Role of Family Characteristics in the Utilization of Antenatal Care Services <p>The major objective of this study was to point out the family characteristics which observed as the main hurdle in order to utilize the available health care services. Data was collected from 323 females which were not currently pregnant but gave birth to one or more children. Family characteristics were asked in order to examine the family participation in maternal care. In order to check the relationship between family characteristics and utilization of health care services binomial logistic regression analysis was used. Major findings of the study shows that family system, role of husband regarding qualification and income play a great role to predict the number of antenatal care visits. Results shows that husband’s age, education and income were also have strong association with the utilization of e health care services. In order to improve the critical situation of maternal and infant mortality education needs more attention.</p> Tuba Mustufa Saima Nazeer Hafiza Madiha Rafiq Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-01 2023-04-01 4 2 323 331 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)31 Cross Cultural Translation and Validation of the Investment Model Scale for Married Adults of Pakistan <p>The current study aimed at cross validating one of the most widely used scales for investigation of romantic relationships among married individuals. From past few decades, interest in understanding the contributing factors in success and failure of marriage has increased. For said purpose culturally appropriate tool was required. Investment Model Scale measures romantic relationships in four sub-dimensions: relationship satisfaction, investment size, quality of alternatives, and commitment. Urdu Translated 22 global items were administered on 298 married men and women from five provincial capitals of Pakistan. Confirmatory Factor analysis with promax rotation was performed. Results confirmed the four-factor structure with the omission of items 18, 19, and 20 because of inadequate factor loadings. Subsequently, 19 items Urdu-translated version of IMS was found to be psychometrically sound tool with semantic, idiomatic, contextual, and linguistic appropriateness as original English version.</p> Aliya Abdul Hayee Anila Kamal Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-04-03 2023-04-03 4 2 332 345 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)32 Secular and Religious Humanism in Selected Pakistani English Fiction <p>Pakistani English fiction has since long been representing the dominant and peripheral currents of Pakistani society. With this background in view the main objective of this research is to investigate the presence of secular and religious humanism in selected Pakistani English fiction. Secularity and religiosity both appear to have coexisted here and this trend has not stopped yet. Some Pakistani writings which reflect secular and religious humanism include Ice – Candy – Man, Meatless Days, Moth Smoke, Holy Woman, The Geometry of God, and Home Boy. Narrative and thematic analysis is used for this research. The study finds that the scope of these two competing isms, because of national and international affairs, has been on the rise despite their progressive and regressive roles. It recommends that humanism in any of its forms, especially secular and religious, needs to be cautiously embedded in literary productions as both may have far reaching consequences for societal make up at home or abroad.</p> Muhammad Arif Khan Shahid Hussain Shahid Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-05 2023-04-05 4 2 346 360 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)33 Impact of Personality Traits on Job Performance through Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction: A Case Study of Telecom Sector of Islamabad <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of personality traits on job performance through the mediating role of job satisfaction. The survival and success of an organization mainly depending on its employee’s ability and personality traits. Therefore, personality traits of employees play a vital role for the employee performance at workplace. This is an explanatory study, and the study used a quantitative approach. For this purpose, we have distributed questionnaires to get the responses. The data was obtained from 319 employees of four different telecom companies of Islamabad through questionnaire. For data analysis like reliability and validity analysis, correlation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), regression analysis, descriptive analysis were conducted. The results of this study suggested that personality traits have a significant influence on employee’s job performance. The results further suggested that job satisfaction mediate the relationship between them.</p> Faryal Waseem Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-04-06 2023-04-06 4 2 361 369 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)34 The Role of Election Commission in Strengthening Democracy System of Pakistan: An Analysis <p>The objective of this research is to examine the role of the Election Commission in strengthening the democracy system in Pakistan through a comparative analysis of electoral management systems in India, USA, and Pakistan. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of recent electoral reforms and recommend further improvements in the electoral process in Pakistan. A comparative analysis of electoral management systems in other countries can provide valuable insights and recommendations for Pakistan. The research methodology used in this research is a qualitative approach, including a review of existing literature, analysis of data from official reports, and interviews with key stakeholders. The study found that the Election Commission in Pakistan has faced challenges due to political interference, lack of resources, and inadequate use of technology. Comparatively, the Election Commissions in India and the USA have implemented best practice. The report suggests the following changes to improve Pakistan's voting system based on its results. The first step is to create a neutral Election Commission, followed by the use of technology, the promotion of voter education, the reform of campaign financing, and the avoidance of violence at polling places.</p> Bushra Zeb Khan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-08 2023-04-08 4 2 370 377 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)35 Leadership Traits in the Door of Opportunity and Teachers’ Perception of a Leader <p>The paper analyzes the attributes of a colonist or a leader in ‘The Door of Opportunity” aiming to investigate contemporary teachers’ perception of leadership characteristics: courage, intelligence, valuing oneself, knowledge, aesthetics sense and stereotype gender roles which are portrayed in “The Door of Opportunity”. It also focuses to evaluate the extent teachers are in line with the perception of leadership of the society presented in the story, and shown in Alban’s personality, the protagonist of the story. The study uses mixed method; quantitative and content analysis. Based on the results of the content analysis, a questionnaire is designed without referring to the story for the sake of objectivity. The results of the content analysis point out courage and masculinity as an important characteristic of a leader or colonist. The quantitative analysis through a questionnaire shows that a vast majority of the participants consider courage, intelligence, protecting people and good literary taste as positive leadership traits; while, feminine characteristics in male leaders and masculine features in female leaders are viewed negatively. The paper concludes that the participants’ views about stereotype roles of gender in a leader are somewhat compatible with Ann and the society’s perceptions in the text but incompatible with Alban’s stance on leadership qualities.</p> Kamran Ali Muhammad Arsalan Shumaila Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-04-09 2023-04-09 4 2 378 386 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)36 Feast Furniture of Indus Urban Phase 2600-1900 BCE: Study of Social Stratification through Diet Storing and Serving Pattern in Indus Civilization <p>The social organization of Indus people during urban phase 2600-1900BCE of Indus civilization which continued for 700 years is still ambiguous. Hence, the objective of study is to consider whether or not class system existed in all settlements of Indus Valley. Background of study is based on the literature posing the archaeological documentation about food vessels and utility patterns; their frequent and infrequent use, ritual and regular use expressing the status of Indus people. The issue is taken through methodology using cross cultural comparison from ancient civilizations and the archaeological and ethnoarchaeological documentation within Indus land. The findings of present data set showed very clear segments of the Indus society and possible patterns of their social expansion within Indus land. It is further recommended that the vessels may examined through, use wear, micro residues and lipid analyses to authenticate the use of food vessel for social stratification in Indus Civilization.</p> Tooba Shafaq Rajput G.M. Veesar Mastoor Fatima Bukhari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-09 2023-04-09 4 2 387 409 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)37 Use of Implicatures in The Murder of Aziz Khan: A Pragmatic Analysis <p>Pragmatics is crucial to understanding the underlying meanings of any discourse because it helps to reflect the speaker's intentions. By using Grice's model of Cooperative Principles, the current study determines the pragmatic meanings in discourse. This model aids in understanding character mental behavior as well as conversational patterns in dramatic discourse. Murder of Aziz Khan by Zulfikar Ghose has been examined from a pragmatics perspective in order to achieve this goal. The data has been examined by using Grice's theory of Conversational Implicatures. This study's framework has a descriptive design. Discussion and statistical methods have been used to finalize the results and findings. The quantity, quality, relation, and manner maxim has been violated 36 times, according to the researcher. It has been noted that breaking conversational norms has put the meanings that set off the action and plot at risk. This study demonstrates that the discourse is suitable for conversational structure analysis and that flouting occurs for effects in the discourse.</p> Hira Yousaf Samina Sarwat Waheed Shahzad Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 4 2 410 426 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)38 Teaching Language Skills to Young Learners through Activities: A Case Study of Primary Schools in Gujrat <p>Interactive teaching is central to learning language skills at all grades. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Activity Based Teaching on leaning of the four major skills. To achieve this purpose, pre-test post-test control group design was used with a random sample of 34 male students selected from the list of primary schools located in the district Gujrat. A pre-test was conducted before the treatment of 5 weeks and a post-test was administered within a week after the treatment with the control and experiment group. To find out the significance of the difference between the scores of the tests, t-test for independent samples was run. The test indicated a significant difference in the performance of the experiment group. The study has important significance for the teachers, syllabus designers, and the materials developers. It is recommended in light of the findings that interactive teaching interspersed with activities should replace the lecture-based teaching of language skills, especially with 5th graders.</p> Adnan Hussain Perveen Akhter Farhat Muhammad Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 4 2 427 439 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)39 Afghanistan at the Center of the New Great Game: Implications for Pakistan <p>This research paper examines the concept of the "New Great Game" with reference to Afghanistan according to the theory of realism in order to understand the motivations and actions of regional and global powers involved in the country. The paper employs case study approach to evaluate the old “Great Game” and its ongoing version in the Afghanistan. The article argues that Afghanistan is the hub of the “New Great Game” as many actors try to further their agendas in the region and Pakistan will most likely be impacted by the actions of outside actors as it has a large stake in what happens in Afghanistan. The paper utilizes theory of realism, analysis of key events and actors in Afghanistan's recent history, as well as their implications for the region in general. It emphasizes the importance of understanding the dynamics of the New Great Game for regional stability and international security.</p> Raziq Hussain Alyas Ali Chaichi Munir Ahmad Khan Gasura Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 4 2 440 450 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)40 Impact of Metaphors in Advertisements: An Explorative Study <p>Metaphors are often used in advertisements to convey messages to the target customer. The study focuses on discovering the impact of simple, metaphorical (with pictures), and metaphorical (with both text and picture) adverts on consumers in terms of their ease of understanding, attractiveness, duration of evaluation, and persuasive power. The aim of the study is to find out if there is a significance difference of understanding, persuasion, evaluative time, and attractiveness of metaphorical and no metaphorical advertisement. The results of the study can be useful not only in the field of advertisements but also in any field that involves persuasion and communication skills. The methods used were laboratory experiment and self-report. A cohort of thirty people participated in the study comprised of ten male and ten female students, five male and five female faculty members. The study suggests that metaphors adverts have better attractiveness and persuasive power as compared to simple advertisements.</p> Kamran Ali Shamaila Amir Nazra Zahid Shaikh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 4 2 451 450 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)41 A Study on the Journey of Transformation from a Traditional Platform to Online Teaching Practices at Higher Education Institutions <p>The widespread usage of digital technology has placed pressure on academic institutions to rethink their approaches to learning and instruction in contemporary times. The fundamental objective of this investigation was to explore departmental heads' perspectives on online teaching practices at HEI (Higher Education Institutions). Secondly, to suggest some suitable initiatives for the best online teaching practices at HEI. This investigation was qualitative in nature. For this study, five (5) HEIs in South Punjab, Pakistan, were chosen. To obtain qualitative data, a semi-structured interview was arranged for a sample of eighteen (18) heads/chairpersons selected by convenient sampling. The data was analyzed using NVIVO 12 for a comprehensive thematic analysis. This qualitative research unearthed a number of issues associated with the transformation towards online learning practices. Furthermore, it revealed the initiatives presented by the departmental heads to address the issues and the requirement of providing further training for teachers to improve their potential.</p> Samina Akhtar Khalid Khurshid Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 4 2 461 470 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)42 Examining the Relationship between Students' Utilization of Technology and Self-Directed Learning: A Research in Pakistan <p>The aim of this research is to investigate the correlation between students' use of technology and self-directed learning. The study intends to explore whether there are any variations in the level of self-directed learning between students in public and private sector universities. The research employed a correlation design using a quantitative approach. The study population comprised students enrolled in social science BS (Hons), Master, and M. Phil programs at public and private universities in Lahore. The sample was selected using a multistage sampling technique, consisting of 150 male and 150 female students from three public and three private universities. Data was collected using adapted scales, including the MTUAS (media and technology usage and attitude scale) to measure students' use of technology and the SRSSDL (self-rating scale of self-directed learning) to measure the level of self-directed learning. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean score, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation). The results showed a moderate positive relationship between students' use of technology and their self-directed learning. Moreover, the study found that the level of self-directed learning was higher among students in both public and private sector universities.</p> Tariq Hussain Shumaela Tabbasum Aroona Hashmi Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-04-22 2023-04-22 4 2 471 480 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)43 Historicity of Expropriation in History of India in History at the Limits of World’s History by Ranajit Guha <p>In the scenario of decolonization, historiography plays a vital role in anticolonial endeavors. As decolonization took place the written history was challenged and questioned by scholars for its discursive element. The power structures not only manipulated history but misrepresented colonized people and estates. The present research highlights a significant facet of historicality-the expropriation of history. The study reveals that history of the world is formulated by hegemonic powers in order to oppress those who were powerless in the process of colonization. The anticolonial resistance demands an assertion on the part of native identity. The study by looking into Guha’s work, History at the Limits of World’s History traces the reclamation of India’s history in the face of discussion. By narrating Tagore’s stance of the significance of the past, Guha provides in his critique an avenue to the revised history of colonized states. The study presents Stephen Greenblat’s theory of new historicism and analyzed the disjunctions in the empirical nature of history which refrained the subjugated subalterns to emancipate from the hegemonic web of historicality.</p> Fauzia Ameen Sadia Waheed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-22 2023-04-22 4 2 481 489 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)44 Translation and Adaptation of Inferiority Complex Scale [ICS-10] <p>The present study aimed at translating and adapting Inferiority Complex Scale (ICS-10) in order to increase its cross-cultural application. Keeping in view the research goals and objectives, the scale was translated into Urdu and adapted at different stages proposed for translation and adaption of a questionnaire or scale. Correlation of Urdu version with English version of Inferiority Complex Scale and one week test-retest reliability seemed good when estimated through Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Computation of Cronbach’s alpha also indicated good internal consistency of the scale. The measure of Urdu version was tested with KMO and Bartlett’s test to estimate its sampling adequacy for using factor analysis. The measurement model of confirmatory factor analysis with one factor has revealed the Urdu version of Inferiority Complex Scale (ICS-10) as good fit model. ICS-10 also yields strong convergent and discriminant validity when tested with other translated measures of General Self-Efficacy Scale and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Negative. Over all present research findings confirmed the measure of Inferiority Complex Scale, Urdu version, as standardized tool indicating good reliability and validity with reference to Pakistan.</p> Riffat Sadiq Zainab Asif Sana Hameed Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-04-22 2023-04-22 4 2 490 498 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)45 Emerging Trends and Research Developments in Education for Sustainable Development: Shaping Conceptions for a Sustainable Future <p>Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a multifaceted and interdisciplinary approach that addresses the complex challenges of sustainability. This paper presents an analysis of emerging trends and research developments in ESD concepts. Findings show that ESD emphasizes a holistic and integrated approach, highlights diverse disciplines and promotes critical reflection, contextualization, participation and empowerment among learners. ESD recognizes the interconnectedness of social, economic, and environmental issues, and promotes inclusive, just, and resilient societies. It emphasizes the importance of local and cultural context, and promotes transformative and collaborative teaching. This paper provides recommendations for advancing ESD, including the need for policy support, capacity building for educators, and fostering research and innovation. The findings contribute to the understanding of ESD concepts and highlight the relevance of ESD in addressing sustainability challenges and promoting a more sustainable future.</p> Madiha Khadim Syeda Samina Tahira Bushra Naz Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-22 2023-04-22 4 2 499 512 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)46 Weapons or Economy Makes the Powerful Nation: An Analysis <p>The study evaluates what nations need to become powerful, economy or weapons. The main objective of the study is to explore the significance of economy or weapon for a nation. The study adopts the secondary qualitative method with data analysis techniques of content analysis to describe the study's objectives and variables. Power is a subjective term subject to growth and decline over time. Weapons and the economy are both powerful tools of powerful nations, and in today's time, both are necessary for nations to have. A weapon is a tool with which a nation safeguards its national boundaries from the threats of rival nations. Economic growth/advancement is another powerful tool with which nations attain resources necessary to finance the advancement of weapons to protect national boundaries. Both are interconnected and go side by side with one another; without any, a nation could not become powerful. Decades ago, China was not assertive compared to the USA, but in recent times, China is aligned to be the world's next superpower. The USA did not lose its power or influence or face a decline in its power. However, China has gained economic significance, bringing China next in line to become a world superpower. The study has utilised previous researchers' work to evaluate what makes a nation powerful. The findings of the study depict that for a nation to be powerful in recent times, economic growth is the priority, followed by advancement in the military to safeguard national borders and national interests.</p> Muhammad Shahid Riaz Moazzam Sajid Maqsood Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 4 2 513 522 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)47 Socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 on the Transgender Community in District Peshawar KP <p>This study examines the socio-economic impacts of Covid-19 on the transgender community in Peshawar District KP, using a qualitative approach and snowball sampling technique to select a sample of 55 transgender individuals. Through in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, the study found that the transgender community faced significant challenges due to their social exclusion by their Gurus, illiteracy, lack of employment opportunities, and complex gender identity. The impact of Covid-19 exacerbated these problems, resulting in social exclusion, homelessness, mental health issues, economic dependency, and gender complexity. The study recommends that the government and transgender-led organizations conduct awareness sessions, direct religious leaders regarding transgender rights, provide access to healthcare, financial support, and affordable housing facilities, and support the transgender-led organization for inclusion and acceptance.</p> Sher Shah Farhan Ali Irfan Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-10 2023-05-10 4 2 523 533 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)48 Ethical Leadership and the Organizational Citizenship Behavior of the Follower: A Case of Higher Education Institutes of Pakistan <p>Leadership plays a significant role in the development of any organization. It is a key instrument which molds up the behavior of the organizational citizenship behavior of the follower. This study examines the impact of ethical leadership on the citizenship behavior of employees at higher education institutes in Pakistan. This study further aims to examine the mediation role of the ethical climate, job satisfaction, employee engagement, and affective commitment on the relationship of ethical leadership with the follower citizenship behavior of the follower. Data was gathered from a sample of 400 employees of the higher education institutes of overall Pakistan by purposive sampling. For the data analysis, Smart PLS was used. From the findings of this study, it was concluded that ethical leadership would first create an ethical climate. After that, this ethical climate will affect follower satisfaction, engagement, and commitment, leading them to citizenship behavior in the long term</p> Jan Muhammad Mutasam Muhammad Shujjaudin Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-10 2023-05-10 4 2 534 542 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)49 The Preponderance of International Courts in the Conflict of Treaty Law and Customary International Law <p>The foundations of a society's legal system are profoundly impacted by the law's historical context. International law is separate from the laws of particular countries. Legal determination in the community is more difficult than in a sovereign state because there is no worldwide legislature or system of courts with binding jurisdiction. Almost from the start, there were legal professors who believed that the Statutes were the ones responsible for establishing authority. This means that if a treaty establishes a norm that conflicts with an existing international custom, the rule in the treaty will take precedence. While some legal experts believe the Statute was created to establish a hierarchy, others argue that its only goal was to give a compilation of the international law sources in the order in which a court would properly analyze them. This study looks at how international courts tend to rule in situations where customary international law and treaty law are in direct opposition to one another.</p> Ahmad Talha Jahangir Shah Kakar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-10 2023-05-10 4 2 543 550 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)50 Effect of Instructional Leadership on Student Academic Achievement in Science Subjects at Secondary School Level <p>The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of instructional leadership on students’ academic achievement in science subjects (Physics, Chemistry, and Biology) at secondary level. Instructional leadership includes the leadership capacity of an individual such as head teacher to provide instructional resources, maximize instructional time for teachers, and maximize instruction related activities to improve student achievement. The population of the study included all science teachers and their students of grade 10 in public high schools in Baluchistan. Instructional Leadership Questionnaire (ILQ) was adopted after getting consent from the authors. Pilot-testing was conducted to ensure the reliability of the questionnaire. Later on, using the multistage sampling technique, 2797 students and 388 teachers were selected from 6 districts (Quetta, Pishin, Sibi, Lasbela, Killa Abdullah, and Chaman) of Balochistan. Instructional Leadership Questionnaire was found to be highly reliable. (α=.84). The achievement scores of the 2797 students in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology were collected from their respective schools. Moderate positive relationship of instructional leadership and students’ achievement in Physics, Chemistry, and biology were found. Multiple regression analysis showed that Instructional leadership predicted 46% of variance in Physics achievement, 38% in Chemistry, and 49 % in Biology achievement. The study recommended implementing instructional leadership practices in schools to increase students’ achievement in science subjects.</p> Ghazala Yasmeen Muhammad Usman Tobawal Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-10 2023-05-10 4 2 551 565 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)51 On the Development of Heilongjiang Hui People Animal Husbandry Economy in the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China <p>The Heilongjiang region has had the advantage of developing animal husbandry since ancient times. At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, with the large-scale influx of Hui ethnic groups into the Heilongjiang region, the Hui and other fraternal ethnic groups joined in the development process of various economic industries. Among them, some Hui people are engaged in animal husbandry. However, due to the distribution pattern of local Hui people mainly in cities and towns, constraints from traditional management consciousness, a lack of funds, and unfavorable factors such as the social environment in the Heilongjiang region, the further development of Hui animal husbandry production is restricted. Although the development of animal husbandry has not become the focus of its economic development, it is also worth noting that the production of animal husbandry by the Hui people in Heilongjiang has its own characteristics and had an important impact during this historical period. Through the research on the economic development of Heilongjiang Hui's animal husbandry in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, it is helpful to sort out the objective laws of the economic development of the ethnic minorities in the border areas. This provides certain theoretical value and practical significance for the construction of a new socialist countryside and the construction of a harmonious society in ethnic areas.</p> Zhang Tong Yang Guang Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-10 2023-05-10 4 2 566 576 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)52 The Role of Print Media and Muslim Education in Sub-Continent (1857-1897) <p>The objective of the study is to explore the educational thoughts among Muslims through print media in the sub-continent. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan had a great influence on Muslim education. In following his footsteps, a lot of other journalists and educationists, such as Maulana Shibli came to the mainstream to investigate and remove the European misconception among Muslims. During the reign of the Mauryan Empire, the Slave Dynasty, and the Mughal Empire saw printing press practices. However, in the 18th century, different kinds of printing press worked under the East India Company and play a vital role in Muslim education in the 19th century. Sir Syed and Shibli's works used as primary and secondary sources with outstanding writing and knowledge provide the facts. That finds Shibli's educational thoughts for the whole community with both combinations. The Aligarh movement of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan paved the way for Muslims to get a Western and traditional education, that eliminated all kinds of misunderstandings which popped out after the War of 1857.</p> Faiza Raees Mariam Riasat Gull I Hina Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 4 2 577 585 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)53 Efficacy of Investment in Educational Institutes and Human Capital for Sustainable Economic Growth in Pakistan <p>Efficacy of investment in educational institutes, and human capital have drastic role in economic upturn. However, at various levels human capital demonstrated regarding infrastructure of education that becomes a more relevant measure of human capital alternative to enrollment at school in different institutions. This study has taken four decades annual data to investigate the association between educational institutions and human capital on economic upswing. The data starts from 1978 to 2018. The Cob Douglas production function is used to determine the efficacy of human capital, and upswing of the economy in Pakistan. The overall results reveal that there is a significant role of human capital (educational institutions) in economic growth in the long run. It is also observed that long-term development across countries has been propelled by productivity growth at a higher scale. Economic upswing accelerates the labor productivity, if necessary, actions should be part of Government investment. The decisions, and policies in educational institutes should be positive and proof of safe flight through human capital efficacy.</p> Hina Amir Kanwal Bilal Majid Imdad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 4 2 586 598 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)54 Beneficiary Expectation from Low-Income Housing Projects: A Post-Occupancy Evaluation Study from Punjab, Pakistan <p>The Pakistani government has been promoting affordable housing projects for low-income households for the last thirty years. It is important to appraise the low-income housing projects from the perceptions of beneficiaries being the ultimate users of such facilities in urban settings. This paper presents an analytical study on the experiences of beneficiaries from the application process to possession of housing units in two different models of affordable housing in the Punjab region, Pakistan. It is challenging to link their experiences as post occupancy evaluation (POE) regarding the application process, living experience, and governance of such housing projects. Analysis was done using inductive reasoning by data collection through focus group discussions. The findings show and confirm that quality of life in a low-income housing environment is a combination of multiple factors which influence the mind of households from the inception of projects till the possession and continue in the post-occupancy phase as well. The funding and execution of projects need to consider the end user demand by the inclusion of targeted beneficiaries in the planning, design, and regulation of the housing projects to ensure the resident’s housing satisfaction in terms of provision of all allied facilities, infrastructure, experience, and quality of living.</p> Sana Malik Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 4 2 599 614 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)55 Islamophobia in the US and Europe: An Analytical Study <p>This qualitative study aims to investigate Islamophobia in Western democracies. Islamophobia is growing because of numerous historical and culture elements, world events as well as the present political climate. One significant factor contributing to the rise of Islamophobia in the West is the historical legacies of colonialism and imperialism. In USA Islamophobia has become pervasive problem, Muslim populations are increasingly subjected to acts of violence, discrimination in the workplace, and negative media portrayal. Likewise, Islamophobia has emerged as a major issue in contemporary Europe. Muslim communities in Europe have experienced many difficulties such as prejudice, intimidation, and even physical attacks. The study recommended to empower Muslim voices, encourage, and support Muslim leaders to speak out against Islamophobia and share their perspectives and experiences. This involve providing platforms for Muslims voices to be heard and providing resources to build the capacity of Muslim communities to advocate for their rights.</p> Marwa Riaz Khadija Shahbaz Maryam Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-13 2023-05-13 4 2 615 625 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)56 Influence of Teacher Factors on “Quality Education” in Government Primary Schools in the Naseerabad Division, Balochistan, Pakistan <p>Quality education is a central issue in almost all countries across the globe. Despite its significance, quality education is influenced by various socio-economic and institutional factors in most countries. In light of this issue, this study analyzed teacher factors that influence the quality of education in government primary schools in the Naseerabad division, Balochistan. The survey research design was adopted with a sample size of 272 respondents comprised of 200 head teachers, 8 educational administrators, 32 parents, and 32 community members from the two districts in the Naseerabad division. In order to collect data from the respondents, a semi-structured questionnaire, in-depth interviews, and group discussions were used. Frequency distribution, percentage, mean, correlation, and logistic regression were used to analyze data gathered through the questionnaire. However, thematic analysis was used to analyze data collected through interviews and group discussions. The findings of the study indicate a positive association between quality education and teacher qualifications, teaching experience, teaching methods, teacher motivation, teacher training, and content knowledge. On the other hand, teacher absenteeism was negatively associated with quality education. Finally, it is recommended, among others, that appointing highly qualified and professionally trained teachers in primary school will improve the quality of education.</p> Shakeel Ahmed Mumtaz Ali Baloch Hafsa Karim Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-13 2023-05-13 4 2 626 637 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)57 Fostering Consumer’s Acceptance of SMS-Based Mobile Advertising: A South Asian Perspective <p>This study aims to investigate the drivers that foster the acceptance of SMS-Based Mobile Advertising among the consumers of Pakistan. The mobile industry in Pakistan is expanding quickly; mobile cellular density increased from 60.4% in 2009–10 to 82.08% in May 2023. Given the quick expansion of the mobile phone industry, advertisers worldwide have poured billions of dollars into SMS-based mobile advertising to draw in mobile consumers. On the other hand, these commercials are poorly received and elicit adverse reactions. Data was meticulously gathered and subjected to thorough CFA and SEM analysis. The model's acceptable fit is confirmed by SEM analysis, and path analysis supports the positive relationships between the endogenous construct and utility, context, and trust. Millennials view mobile devices as highly personal but find mobile advertising obtrusive. This study helps marketers to get insights into the phenomenon of how to raise consumer acceptability levels and help marketers accept their advertising initiatives' desired return on investment.</p> Muhammad Ahmad Muhammad Luqman Tauheed Rana Zafar uz Zaman Anjum Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 4 2 638 651 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)58 Adaptation of English Loan Words in Pahari: An Adaptability Scale Analysis <p>This study unfolds the morphological incorporation of English words borrowed into Pahari language. To check the coincidence of morphological adaptation of English loan words in Pahari a tri- stratal loan words adaptability scale (AL Karuri, 1986) has been used that provides three levels of adaptability. It categorizes the words into merely adapted loan words (M.As), partially adapted loan words (P.As) and fully adapted loan words (F.As). This research is qualitative in nature and data has been collected through convenient sampling. Observation and audio recordings of Pahari speakers has been used as data collecting tool. The study reveals that when Pahari takes the loan from other languages, its morphological system is automatically activated to nativize the foreign word. Majority of Pahari morphological rules are applied on English loans wherever the requisite criteria is fulfilled. It also discovers the fact that Pahari contains M.As and P.As with zero analogical change in small amount. A new category of English P.As has been explored in Pahari which reflects morphological change by keeping the English phonology intact which is further divided into two sub classes. The research concludes that English F. As in Pahari are most commonly found loan words as compared to other two types.</p> Amna Khan Shahida Khalique Kokub Khurshid Abbasi Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 4 2 652 664 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)59 Mapping the Past: Preliminary Assessment of Survey of Archaeological Sites and Monuments in District Bhimber, AJ&K (2020-21) <p>Archaeological research has played a crucial role in preserving the cultural heritage of the Bhimber region. Numerous researchers and explorers have contributed to documenting its historical monuments and sites, but its potential has not been exploited at large. To document the archaeological potential of the District Bhimber, a survey was proposed. This paper focuses on the preliminary results of this survey and documentation of archaeological sites and monuments in the Bhimber district, AJ&amp;K, conducted between 2020-21. The main objective of the survey was to find new sites and monuments and document in detail the exposed features of already reported and new sites and monuments. Traditional field walk following village to village survey methodology equipped with proforma has been adopted for the documentation of sites and monuments. Through these efforts, over fifteen archaeological sites and historic monuments have been identified and documented detail in District Bhimber, with the majority located in Tehsil Bhimber. The sites comprise of religious structures such as temples, gurdwaras, mosques, as well as residential and defensive structures such as forts and havelis mainly associated to Sikh and Mughal period. The discovery of these significant structures emphasizes the need for continued research and preservation efforts to safeguard the cultural heritage of the region for future generations. There is still a need of large-scale survey to document the archaeological sites and monuments in other regions of the Bhimber as well as AJ&amp;K.</p> Samina Batool Ghani-ur Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 4 2 665 675 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)60 Flipgrid's Role in Enhancing the High School-Level Pakistani ESL Learners' Speaking Skills: A Case Study <p>This research aims to explore the general attitude of high school-level Pakistani ESL learners about, Flipgrid to enhance their English-speaking skills and investigate its effectiveness. A technology tool Flipgrid has transformed teaching and learning methods from traditional to nontraditional, promoting ESL learning. This research implied a quantitative method. Data was collected from questionnaires and students' speaking videos from 30 high school-level Pakistani ESL learners with poor English-speaking skills. In data analysis, the results of questionnaires and students' speaking videos were analyzed descriptively through IBM SPSS Statistics version 25. The results showed that above 90% of high school-level Pakistani ESL learners attitude is highly optimistic about Flipgrids's role in enhancing their English-speaking skills (fluency and vocabulary), and it is perceived as approximately 92% effective. This study implies that more research on Flipgrid is required to comprehend how it influences students' speaking skills.</p> Sadaf Urooj Nafeesa Maria Naseem Sibtain Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 4 2 676 688 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)61 Study about the Effects of Consolidation Policy on School Development Plan of School Education Department in Punjab <p>Many problems did embrace in foundational education in Pakistan including the shortage of teachers. Community Model Schools at primary level were introduced to address this problem in Punjab. Teachers of both sexes were inducted inclusive of the head teacher. Many factors were affecting educational system but most serious was low performance in administration and poor academic outcomes. So objectives of the study were, to investigate the administrative performance of consolidated schools after consolidation in Punjab and to explore the academic development made by the consolidated schools after consolidation in Punjab. All the Teachers, Head teachers, AEOs and Students of consolidated schools in division Gujranwala were the population. Total sample was 380 in which 38 Head Teachers, 76 Teachers, 228 Students and 38 AEOs from the selected schools. A questionnaire on 5-point Lickert scale was used to collect data. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics were applied. Administrative and academic performance becomes better than before.</p> Farooq Ahmad Aajiz Khalid Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-18 2023-05-18 4 2 689 694 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)62 Examining the Global Ripple Effects: Analyzing the Impact of First Republic Bank’s Fall on Different Financial Market <p>The collapse of First Republic Bank, the largest bank failure in the United States since the 2008 financial crisis, had significant ripple effects on various sectors within the global financial system. This research study examines the interconnectedness and vulnerabilities of the financial markets by analyzing the impact of the bank's fall on top United States banks, United States equity exchanges, global equity indices, and prominent cryptocurrencies. Using the event study methodology, we calculate abnormal returns and Cumulative Abnormal Returns (CARs) over a specified event window. The findings highlight the widespread and significant abnormal returns observed across sectors, emphasizing the systemic risks associated with bank failures. The results also demonstrate the decline in stock prices and investor confidence in the banking sector following the collapse. The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the interconnectedness and spillover effects in the aftermath of a significant banking event, providing valuable insights into the global financial landscape's broader implications and risks.</p> Muhammad Ihsan Muhammad Haroon Sheeba Zafar Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-19 2023-05-19 4 2 695 707 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)63 A Marxist Analysis of In the Company of Strangers by Awais Khan <p>The current study examines the disparities in class and hostility between Pakistan's upper and lower classes. It investigates the shady dealings of the Pakistani upper class. Marxism is about how the bourgeoisie exploits the proletariat. The wealthy ruling class is in charge of all the production equipment. The bourgeoisie class is wholly dependent on the proletariat class for its goods. According to Marxism, the governing elite class manages all the resources while the underprivileged proletariat class makes a living mimicking the elite. The theory of Marxism is extensively employed as the theoretical framework for this research in order to analyze the chosen text. According to this report, Pakistan's elite society engages in unethical practices and exploits workers in terms of pay. Within the Marxist theory of class conflict framework, this study also investigates the murky dealings of the Pakistani elite class and their covert layers. The methodology for this study is textual analysis, which is a qualitative methodology.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Jahanzaib Zafar Muhammad Nasir Rao Aisha Sadiq Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-21 2023-05-21 4 2 708 717 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)64 Neo-conservative Movement’s Influence on American Policy Makers: Militarism of American Foreign Policy <p>Neoconservative thought is a movement in America which believes on maintaining American military primacy at global level through increased defense spending. This study traces neo-conservative thought in American history and portrays its effects on American policies. This is a qualitative study which relies on books, articles and newspapers. The neo-conservative thought has deep roots in American intelligentsia. The 9/11 attacks brought the ‘neo-conservative moment’ in American history. This study believes that Bush’s war on terror brought neo-conservative’s militaristic approach to American policy. Its main elements were preventive warfare to deny rogue state’s access to Weapons of Mass Destruction and regime change for democratization of such states like Afghanistan and Iraq. Neo-conservative’s reliance on American power and disregard of International Institutions like UN was eminent in Bush’s decision to go to war in Iraq.</p> Hammad Ahsan Ashfaqe Ahmad Mehreen Yaseen Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2023-05-23 2023-05-23 4 2 718 728 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)65 Acquisition of English Phonology: Spectro-Temporal Mapping of English Mid Vowels in Pakistan <p>English phonology is the overwhelming challenge in successful acquisition of English as L2 as L1 phonological system can constraint the perception, categorization, and acquisition of L2 sound inventory. The current study is aimed at tracing the acquisition of English mid vowels /e/, /ə/, /ɜː/, /ɔː/ in Pakistani English learners. The acoustic-phonetic description of the mid vowels is based on the contours of the lowest two resonant frequencies i.e. F1 and F2 and their temporal frequencies. The sample of the study comprises of 30 female learners of English at middle level from a public school in Distt. Sheikhupura, Pakistan. The target mid vowels are embedded into / hvd / syllables in the carrier phrase ‘say --- please’ as a stimuli. The data set of 600 tokens elicited from participants at the same proficiency level is analysed at FormantPro (Xu, 2013). The analysis reveals some nonlinear features of English mid vowels which have, thus far, been either unidentified or deemed inconsequential in the specification of English mid vowels. Pakistani learners articulated English central vocalic sounds (/ə/, /ɜː/) as peripheral sounds. Contrarily, the back vowel (/ɔː/) is pronounced as central vowel in the data. However, the front mid vowel /e/ is pronounced analogous to the native speakers of English language as a front mid vowel. Parallel to spectral divergences, Duration of mid vowels is also deviant from the norm of English language. The findings of the study recommend that teaching of English phonology should not be limited just to orthographic representation or explicit rule presentation rather it should be supplemented with auditory aids.</p> Shazia Kousar Faqir M. Rana M. Amir Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-23 2023-05-23 4 2 729 737 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)66 War on Terror: The Cost Pakistan Paid <p>The study investigates Pakistan's involvement in the global War on Terror and the cost it paid. The objective of this research is to analyze the multifaceted consequences, both positive and negative, that Pakistan endured as a front-line ally in combating terrorism. The background outlines the historical context of Pakistan's alliance with the United States and its role in fighting terrorism, highlighting the challenges and complexities faced during this prolonged conflict. Methodology involved a comprehensive analysis of existing literature, government reports and research articles. The results section uncovers the toll that the War on Terror took on Pakistan, encompassing economic losses, social upheaval, political instability, and an increase in extremist ideologies. Recommendations derived from the study suggest policy measures to address the aftermath of the conflict, fostering long-term stability, enhancing counterterrorism strategies, and strengthening international cooperation to prevent similar situations in the future.</p> Muhammad Tahir Rashid Rabeel Fatima Muhammad Wasif Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 4 2 738 750 10.35484/ahss.2023(4-II)67