Annals of Human and Social Sciences <p><strong>Research of Social Sciences (SMC-Private) Limited (ROSS) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0. 0218990)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences is a <strong>Double-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS) en-US Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2790-6795 <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>AHSS</strong> agree to the <strong>copyright policy</strong> under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>AHSS</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>AHSS</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access Policy</strong> for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /> </p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> Variations in Pakistan’s Policy of Neutrality during the Middle Eastern Conflicts <p>Pakistan has a proclaimed policy of neutrality towards Middle Eastern politics due to the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran. By explaining the multiple factors behind Saudi-Iran rivalry this research article would measure the scale of neutrality in Pakistan’s foreign policy towards Middle East. By adopting the John Scot's model of Documentary analysis in qualitative research, the researcher has designed a criterion of analyzing the neutrality in Pakistan's foreign policy towards Middle East. As, there are multiple indicators of neutrality that can help in measuring Pakistan’s position of neutrality towards Saudi-Iran rivalry in Yemen, Syria, and Iraq. To explain variation in Pakistan’s policy of neutrality, we employ theoretical perspectives of realism and constructivism that helped us to systemically study this variation by factoring in domestic, regional, and international factors. Through this analysis, it was found that even though, mainly due to its identity as a Sunni-majority country, Pakistan tilts towards Saudi-backed bloc of Sunni states, it also tries to appease Iran and its allies for security and economic reasons. This situation requires Pakistan to stay neutral during Middle Eastern conflicts. However, regional, and international pressures compel it to relax this policy. As each conflict has unique regional and international dynamics, Pakistan adjusts its policy of neutrality to ensure its security and to gain maximum economic benefits.</p> Muhammad Irfan Ali Waheed Ahmad Khan Malik Adnan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 01 13 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)01 Exploring the Role of BIM In Supporting Sustainable Design and Construction of Green Buildings <p>Sustainable design and construction have amassed outstanding recognition in the construction of green buildings, resulting in revolutionary improvements to authenticate these aspirations. Building information modeling (BIM) achieving momentum as a potent software for enhancing sustainability in construction. This research explores BIM’s input to support sustainable design and construction in green buildings, trying to analyze its acknowledgment, improvement, and benefits among professionals. It explores BIM's implication on sustainable design principles, cooperation, and project efficacy, and emphasizes factors like energy effectiveness, selection of material, sustainable indoor air quality, and resource streamlining. Through a mixed-method strategy, this research emphasizes BIM's assurance to enhance sustainable design principles and improve project delivery. Findings share insight and guidance for practitioners and participators, supporting wider BIM collaboration to achieve sustainable construction targets competently. Integration of BIM’s software with laboratory concrete tests to achieve high-quality construction and continuous monitoring of the project.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Afzal Iqbal Imran Ghafoor Chaudhry Shahan Mehmood Cheema Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 14 25 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)02 Reliability and Validity of Walter’s Multiple Intelligences Survey in Pakistan <p>The present research is an effort to a series of psychological assessments of intelligence survey concerning Pakistani cultural contex and assess the reliability and validity of the multiple intelligences survey (MIS) by Walter McKenzie. The cross-sectional research design has been implemented and purposive sampling was utilized to collect participant data. The sample was comprised of BS (Hons.) university students from Punjab, and their age range was 18 years to 24 years (M = 21.18, SD = 2.08). The study consisted of two phases. In phase one data screening and a pilot study were conducted, and in phase two psychometric properties and validity (confirmatory factor analysis) were examined. Findings indicated that the MIS is a reliable and valid instrument. The confirmatory factor analysis emerged nine factors with 41 items. The overall reliability of the MIS was acceptable (α = .88). It has been recommended to explore this construct in-depth. In addition, this instrument could be utilized for screening purposes in educational and psychological assessments.</p> Shah Rukh Tariq Iffat Batool Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 26 35 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)03 Impact of YouTube on Non-verbal aspects of Pakistani ESL Learners’ Oral Presentation Skills <p>The current study aimed to determine the enhancement of Non-Verbal Aspects of Pakistani ESL learners’ Oral Presentation skills (OPSs) through YouTube. OPSs are the requisite part of Higher Education and play a significant role in developing learners’ professionalism. Employing a quasi-experimental approach, this study investigates the influence of YouTube videos on the non-verbal aspects of OPSs among ESL learners in Pakistan. Current research involved a convenient sample of 66 ESL learners enrolled at The Islamia University of Bahawalpur in Southern Punjab. The results of the study unveiled that YouTube is a productive educational tool for Pakistani ESL learners, contributing to the enhancement of their non-verbal aspects of OPSs. Improvements were noted in facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, body posture, and overall movement. This study recommends that Pakistani teachers must pay special attention towards the development of various aspects of learners’ Oral Presentation Skills in order to make them flourish professionally.</p> Anum Hanif Tahira Asgher Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 36 49 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)04 Beyond Boundaries: Nurturing Diversity in Higher Education Leadership-Insights from Women’s Journeys in Pakistan <p>This study challenges the notion of gender-specific leadership, contributing to the global discourse on women's advancement in higher education management within the context of Pakistani universities. Using qualitative methods, the research engages in in-depth interviews and focused group discussions with 48 women in junior and senior management roles, offering a nuanced understanding of factors influencing their career progression. It emphasizes that gender should not dictate capabilities or leadership aptitude, advocating for a more inclusive approach to career development in higher education. The findings underscore that women's success in senior leadership involves a blend of personal and professional qualities, adding depth to existing literature on women in academic leadership. Addressing the need for societal attitude and cultural prejudice change, the study highlights the necessity for legislative measures and societal shifts to attain equity in top managerial positions for women. The study's implications extend to future research, providing insights into potential directions for examining factors influencing women's advancement to top management roles.</p> Bushra Inayat Raja Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 50 61 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)05 Money Laundering in Pakistan: Combating Strategies and Preventions <p>This research seeks to analyze the present legal and regulatory frameworks in Pakistan with regard to their efficiency in combatting money laundering. It will also take a look at the obstacles and complexity that come with these efforts. Pakistan encounters a unique mix of difficulties due to its geopolitical location, leadership problems, and structural deficiencies in its financial and legal institutions. An investigation of anti-money laundering laws in Pakistan, as well as a literature research, interviews with relevant experts and stakeholders, and primary and secondary sources make up this study's thorough methodology. Lack of interagency coordination, political influence on law enforcement, and legal loopholes are some of the serious issues highlighted by the findings in relation to Pakistan's anti-money laundering (AML) system. In order to strengthen Pakistan's AML efforts, the report suggests a multi-pronged approach. This approach may incorporate the finest practices of prosperous nations.</p> Muhammad Imran Ghulam Murtiza Muhammad Sulyman Akbar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 62 76 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)06 Legislation for Women Rights in PMLN and PTI Governments: A Comparative Analysis <p>This study compares the legislative initiatives for women's rights implemented by the PMLN and PTI authorities in Pakistan from 2013 and 2022. Using a wealth of legislative documents, statements of policy, and academic analyses, this study identifies significant legislative achievements made by the PTI and PML-N administrations in tackling issues of discrimination, gender-based violence, and socioeconomic inequality that impact women in Pakistan. Through placing the comparison of results within the theoretical framework about liberal feminism, this study advances our comprehension of the intricacies inherent in the debate around women's rights in Pakistan. Content analysis is a research tool has been used within some given qualitative data. While acknowledging the progress made by both the PML-N and PTI governments in enacting laws aimed at safeguarding women's rights, The results show that the PMLN administration has achieved greater headway in attaining legislative program goals, but the PTI government's measures on women's rights are being criticized.</p> Muhammad Waqas Butt Saira Hasan Qirat Khushnood Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 77 84 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)07 Role of Fathers in developing Career Adapt-abilities among Emerging Adults <p>This study investigates the relationship between perceived paternal parenting practices and the career development abilities of emerging adults. Specifically, it investigates how emerging adults’ career adaptabilities of curiosity and confidence relate to perceived paternal autonomy support, involvement, and warmth. After an in-depth review of the existing literature following hypothesis was formulated for this study. Perceived paternal parenting practices (i.e., perceived paternal autonomy support, involvement, and warmth) would be significant predictor of career adopt-capacities (i.e., curiosity &amp; confidence) in emerging adults. 370 emerging adults (220 male &amp; 150 female) were taken from private and public universities of Faisalabad, Pakistan in the age range of (18 to 25 years) using Purposive Sampling. Besides a Demographic Form, Perceptions of Parents Scales; (The College- Student Scale) and The Career Adapt- Abilities Scale were administered. The Multiple Regression Analyses was used to test the hypotheses of the study. Result revealed that Perceived paternal parenting practices (i.e., perceived paternal autonomy support, involvement, and warmth) is a significant predictor of career adopt-capacities (i.e., curiosity &amp; confidence) in emerging adults. It has been shown that supportive networks can help individuals navigate these and move into a more successful career. The findings stressed upon the importance of specific paternal parenting practices for adolescents’ career adapt- abilities. The findings have important implications and can be used in future researches as guidance.</p> Nida Anwar Rabia Mushtaq Sajid Iqbal Alyana Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 85 94 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)08 Theory of Multiple Intelligence in the Large Classroom: A Case Study of Good Luck Grammer School Kazi Ahmed, Shaheed Benazirabad Sindh, Pakistan <p>This study investigates the implementation of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences within the context of large classroom settings, focusing on Good Luck Grammar School in Kazi Ahmed, Shaheed Benazirabad, Sindh, Pakistan. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences proposes that intelligence is not singular but encompasses various forms, including linguistics, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligences. While this theory has gained recognition in educational psychology, its practical application in large classrooms remains relatively unexplored, particularly in the context of schools in Pakistan.</p> Muhammad Ismail Rahu Saleemullah Channa Riaz Hussain Soomro Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 95 102 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)09 Economy and Self: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Written Expressions of Elite and Non-Elite School Students <p>The concept of self is inherently dynamic and lacks definitive boundaries. It encompasses the integration of various psychological, social, and cultural factors to form a coherent sense of self. The present research intends to investigate how economy and formal literacy impact the language-based self-expression of selected secondary school students, recognizing the fluidity and complexity of self-construction and representation. For this purpose, the researcher has implied an amended model by drawing upon Fairclough’s (1997) Critical Discourse Analysis, Gee’s (1999) Cultural Model of Discourse and Street’s (1984) Ideological Model of Literacy. The data collected is in the form of written essays taken from 200 randomly choosen students from elite and non-elite schools which is analyzed at word, sentence and discourse level. The research findings reveal perceptible differences in student perceptions based on socioeconomic backgrounds, influencing their self-construction; economy and literacy significantly impact individuals' opportunities and surroundings. This research will aid future studies in exploring how factors like race, ethnicity, and gender intersect to shape self-construction and representation among secondary school students.</p> Fariha Anjum Durr e Nayab Tariq Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 103 112 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)10 Unveiling the Dynamics of the Jirga System in Pakistan: An In-Depth Analysis <p>The Jirga system in Pakistan holds great significance as it manages support to the grieving and punishes wrongdoers. However, it violates constitutional laws and disregards fundamental human rights when settling conflicts. To comprehend the dynamics of a Jirga, extensive research must be conducted on such topics. The study is based upon two objectives which aimed at identifying the Jirga system's flows while resolving conflicts in various regions of Pakistan, and to gain insight into alternative dispute resolution (ADR) initiatives offered in various countries. The study employs a qualitative research methodology and collected data from various secondary sources. It was revealed that the Jirga is unjust and violates every human right. Meanwhile, (ADR) programs, focus on transparent and equitable conflict settlement while operating lawfully. The paper provided recommendations such as encouraging the Jirga system to be formally recognized by law with well-defined procedures that will allow it to handle disputes effectively and maintain societal stability.</p> Taniya Ahmed Khurshid Ahmed Muhammad Arif Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 113 124 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)11 Study of Social Competence Level among Secondary Schools’ Students in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa <p>The aim of this study was to assess the social competence level of secondary school students. This was a single-method design quantitative study. Cross-sectional survey type technique was used. The population of study was all the secondary school students in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 560 secondary students, 27 from each of 28 secondary schools were randomly selected. For data collection, a questionnaire.i.e.4-point Likert type scale developed by Shujja et al. (2015) was used for assessment of students’ social competence level. The validity of scale was checked with the help of expert committee while reliability was checked through Cronbach Alpha and was determined as 0.726. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS, on the basis of research question using frequency distribution, independent sample t-test and ANOVA. From the findings, it is concluded that social competence level is different for different students. So the development of students’ social competence is recommended and for this, intervention/training is suggested at school level.</p> Naseer Ahmad Hafiz Muhammad Irshadullah Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 125 132 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)12 The Predictive Effect of Alexithymia towards the Metacognition and Emotional Distress in University Students <p>The main objective of the study is to explore the relationship of alexithymia with metacognition and emotional distress in university students. Student’s inability to recognize and express their feelings, restricted imagination and an outwardly focused way of thinking make are core components of alexithymia that make vulnerable to experience emotional distress and leads toward the overthinking. Although alexithymia is common among university students, but there is no specific diagnostic criterion for it. Borderline symptoms of alexithymia often misinterpreted. Students suffering from alexithymia are prone to experience other mental health issues. Cross sectional correlational research design was used, Data comprised on 152 male, 152 female university students with age range of 18-24 years, selected from different public and private universities of Sialkot city. A self- developed demographic sheet with Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Metacognition and Perceived Emotional Distress was administered on participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the data, study results indicated the alexithymia as a strong predictor of metacognition and emotional distress in university students. Moreover the mean differences in alexithymia across first- eight semesters was found. The impact of alexithymia and the role of metacognition on emotional distress may be better understood with the support of longitudinal studies. Future research must be conducted using a clinical sample in order to draw conclusions about the clinical implications.</p> Razia Anjum Rukhsar Shafique Muhammad Latif Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 133 145 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)13 Perceived over Qualification and Cyber Loafing: Mediating Role of Moral Disengagement and Moderating Role of Moral Identity <p>This research aims to study the impact of perceived over qualification on cyber loafing with the mediating role of moral disengagement and moderating role of moral identity. Organizations face challenges in hiring and managing employees who perceive themselves as overqualified, which can lead to moral disengagement and cyber loafing. Understanding the impact of perceived over qualification is crucial for talent retention. Data were collected online from 343 employees of Pakistani government and private sector organizations by using convenience sampling technique. Data was processed in SPSS 21. The findings of this research work indicates a positive and significant relationship between perceived over qualification and cyber loafing. Moreover, moral disengagement mediates the relationship between perceived over qualification and cyber loafing. Furthermore, High moral identity moderates the relationship between moral disengagement and cyber loafing. Future research should expand the model, consider additional moderators and mediators such as ethical leadership and ethical climate.</p> Sundas Aziz Amina Tariq Nyela Ashraf Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 146 156 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)14 Deciphering Discursive Practices in Imran Khan’s Discourse on Islamophobia in OIC 48th Session: A Faircloughian Study <p>This study aimed to critically examine the linguistic arguments, discursive and sociocultural practices in the political speech of the former Prime Minister, Imran Khan that was delivered in 48th session of the OIC council of foreign ministers held in Islamabad. Islamophobia as a sensitive matter that requires immediate resolution, was primarily discussed in the speech. The study adopted a qualitative approach and employed Fairclough’s (1989) Three-Dimension (3D) model for analysis, consisting of descriptive (textual), interpretive (contextual) and explanation (sociocultural) domains. The findings revealed that the former PM delivered his speech with strategic consideration of various linguistic features to address the issue. His chosen language was influenced by socio-political context. The explanation level demonstrated that the carefully crafted language majorly contributed to impart his ideology that Islam is the religion of peace. Furthermore, this study suggested that Islam's image and reputation as a religion of peace in the international community can be improved by discussing Islamophobia at international forums using strategic linguistic resources.</p> Muhammad Abrar Shakira Saleem Sheeza Altaf Hussain Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 157 166 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)15 The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations Dealing with Disastrous Floods in Pakistan in the Year 2022 <p>The objective of this study is to explore role of non-governmental organizations to mitigate their effects of floods on Pakistan's economy and the measures taken by these organizations.Pakistan has been facing severe floods over the past few years, causing significant damage to its economy. The floods have had a massive impact on agriculture, infrastructure, and human lives, resulting in long-term economic consequences.In this context, the role of national and international donor agencies is very important. So in this context this study is an attempt to find out the role of these non-governmental organizations in the flood of year 2022.Three non-governmental organizations i.e.Bunyad Foundation, Akhuwat, and Agahi Pakistan, which were active participants in rehabilitation services in the flood-ridden areas of the country during the flood of 2022. The purposive sampling technique was followed, and researchers conducted nine interviews with staff of non-governmental organizations that assisted victims of the floods. Thematic analysis was used for the sake of analysis. The findings throw light on the challenges in initial relief work, the outpouring of aid and difficulties in managing aid related matters and the focus on the sustainable development. The research highlights the challenges in helping victims, the aid effort, and sustainable development in these flood-prone areas of Pakistan.The study further concludes that these organization, specifically in the times of crisis in Pakistan have shown great resilience and have provided people support and aid. There has been gap of collaborations between state institutions and these non-governmental organizations. With improved cooperation of non-governmental organizations and the state, the people of Pakistan can benefit. So there is need to develop a liaison between the two.</p> Sonia Omer Sadia Jabeen Steven Granich Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 167 180 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)16 Silk Road Revival: Language Contact and Cross-Cultural Communication in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor <p>The study aims to explore the linguistic meaning that has arisen, along with international trade and investment, because of CPEC (China-Pakistan Economic Corridor), and in so doing perhaps stimulate language contact coordination across multiethnic regions on either side. To conduct this qualitative research, thematic way was followed. In which already published research papers were selected by using purposive-sampling method. A systematic thematic analysis of the chosen articles show that CPEC assumes a substantial linguistic role in international trade, with English and Mandarin emerging as the predominant languages employed. This research concludes that linguistic variety, far from being a liability or burden, is an asset worth nurturing which can generate cross-cultural communication and understanding as well as adaptability. This study recommends extending beyond Pakistan's borders, offering a model for linguistically diverse regions in global trade, aiming to maximize language diversity for economic progress and intercultural cooperation.</p> Muhammad Ijaz Khan Hanzala Abu Huraira Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 181 194 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)17 Impact of Self-Motivation on the Academic Performance of University Students: A Comparative Study of Male and Female Students of University of Education D. G. Khan Campus <p>The paper aims to investigate how differently self-motivation affects the academic performance of male and female students at university level. In the view of said aim of the study, BS- level male and female students from four Natural Sciences departments of the University of Education Lahore, D. G. Khan Campus were selected for data collection purpose. In order to measure self-motivation, a questionnaire was crafted and to gather academic performance data, academic results of the students were attained from the exam coordinator for the running semester. The findings indicated that female students exhibited higher levels of self-motivation as compared to their male counterparts, but there was no discernible difference gap in academic performance. As a recommendation, it was proposed that the university's management introduce initiatives to familiarize students and teachers with self-motivation, enhancing their abilities in goal setting, performance evaluation, and planning. Additionally, the suggestion included the implementation of awareness campaigns and frequent group discussions focused on improving self-motivation abilities.</p> Muhammad Arslan Raheem Samina Naz Muhammad Nasir Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 195 202 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)18 The Relationship between Body Image Perception and Depression among Obstetric Fistula Patients <p>This study investigated the relationship between depression levels and body image perception among obstetric fistula patients in South Punjab, Pakistan.Obstetric fistula, a result of prolonged and obstructed labor, significantly affects the psychological well-being of Pakistani women, especially those in rural areas with limited healthcare access. By using cross sectional design 223 women aged 18-35 from various South Punjab cities were recruited. Depression levels were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and a researcher-developed Body Image Perception Scale evaluated body image perceptions.Significant correlations emerged among variables. Residence, socioeconomic status, and employment status correlated negatively with depression, while age correlated positively. Education level showed a paradoxical relationship with depression. Additionally, a significant negative correlation existed between depression and body image perceptions, indicating the impact of negative body image on depression levels. Targeted interventions and further research are crucial to address the mental health challenges faced by obstetric fistula patients in Pakistan, particularly in rural areas, emphasizing comprehensive support for affected women.</p> Hira Anwar Fatima Khurram Bukhari Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 203 209 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)19 Post 9/11 War on Terror: A Study of Dynamics of Neocolonialism in Aslam’s Thinner Than Skin <p>The concept of Neo-Colonialism is perhaps the most relevant issue in the present-day scenario in Third World countries. This research aims at analysing Aslam’s Thinner than Skin in the context of post 9/11 War on Terror and American hegemony strengthening political, cultural and economic control of Pakistan. A conceptual framework has been employed to undertake this research with special emphasis on Nkrumah’s concept of Neo-Colonialism along with supporting concepts of Said and Spivak. This study is qualitative in nature and the Textual Analysis has been employed to analyse the neo-colonial designs of the USA with special repercussions of the War on Terror in this specific region. The results show that the different forms of American neo-colonialism including political, cultural and economic are used to have an indirect control of the country. This study recommends that the contemporary power politics should be perceived from the perspective of Neo-Colonialism to have a true implication.</p> Saima Hafeez Shamshad Rasool Behzad Anwar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 210 215 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)20 The Academic Triad: Procrastination, Self-Discipline and Anxiety in University Life <p>This study aims to examine the relationship between procrastination, self-discipline, and anxiety among university students and explore their impact on academic and mental health. Students' academic performance and mental health are highly influenced by my psychological factors including procrastination, self-discipline, and anxiety. In this quantitative study a correlational research design was employed with non-probability purposive sampling. Data were collected from (N=200) university students using the Procrastination Assessment Scale (PAS), Self-Control Scale (SCS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Procrastination showed a positive correlation with anxiety, while self-discipline exhibited a negative correlation with both procrastination and anxiety symptoms. Self-discipline was a significant negative predictor of anxiety. By Integrating qualitative methods alongside quantitative measures could provide deeper insights into the experiences and perceptions of university students regarding the study variables. Consequently by implementing targeted interventions to enhance self-discipline and reduce procrastination, universities can support students in managing anxiety symptoms and improving overall well-being</p> Shahrukh Salaam Sana Mustafa Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 5 2 216 223 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)21 A Study of Implementation and Success of Building Bye-Laws in Lahore <p>Building Regulations plays significant role in shaping the cities around the globe. The proper implementation and interpretation of these regulations in different parts of the world shaped some of the beautiful cities like Amsterdam and Copenhagen. The uncontrolled growth due to the ineffective planning rules and regulations in third world countries like Pakistan resulted into haphazard city planning. This research is focused on the identification of such factors that includes mainly social, economic and institutional in addition to the interpretations an implementation issues. The methodology adopted comprised of literature review followed by questionnaire surveys along with the socioeconomic and institutional studies. The data was further analyzed by SPSS to compile the results. The data concluded that public participation is mandatory for the effective enforcement of the building bye-laws. This research conclude with the recommendation strategy for proper implementation and interpretation of the Building Regulations for successful planning of the cities like Lahore in Pakistan.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rummana Sherwani Arsala Hashmi Faiqa Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 5 2 224 235 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)22 Impact of Parental Bonding on Body Dissatisfaction: The mediating Effect of Socio-cultural Attitude towards Appearance among University Students <p>This study was intended to analyze the impact and relationship of parental bonding on body dissatisfaction by the mediating role of socio-cultural attitude towards appearance among university students. Body appearance has become a great concern among university students and it can negatively impact an individual. University students are an important asset for any nation and it becomes vital to understand the variables that may affect their lives. The total sample was 325 that was selected by per indication method by multiply the total items (65) of all scales to 5. 165 were males and 158 were females was obtained through Convenient sampling technique. Age range of the sample size was 18 years above. The instruments used to collect the data were Parental Bonding scale (Parker et al.,1979) 25- items. It has two subscales, care and overprotection. Body dissatisfaction scale (Garner et al.,1983) includes 10 items and Socio-cultural attitude towards appearance scale Thompson et al., (2004) contains 30 items that were divided into 4 subscales as information, Pressures, Internalization general and Internalization Athlete. Findings indicated that there is impact of parental bonding on body dissatisfaction. The socio-cultural attitude towards appearance played a moderator role between parental bonding and body dissatisfaction rather than mediator.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bushra Arshad Aqsa Abdul Khaliq Mehak Haroon Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 5 2 236 244 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)23 An Examination of Spatial Inequalities in Access to WASH Services in Pakistan <p>The availability of water is one of the most fundamental and essential needs of any economy. However, the unequal distribution of nature's gifts, such as water, has become one of the major problems that developing countries like Pakistan are facing today. The unequal distribution and access to WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) must be addressed in order to minimize poverty in the country. UNICEF and WHO have developed a joint monitoring program to reduce inequalities and remove poverty all over the world. There are several goals in this Programed including goals 6.1 and 6.2 (equal distribution of WASH services). This study determines whether there is a spatial inequality in access to WASH services in Pakistan or not. The inequalities are studied between the regions of Pakistan as well as among the provinces. The study used cross-sectional data (2019 to 2020) from the PSLM survey. The sample size used in the study is 49, 510. One-way ANOVA and t-test techniques are used to analyze inequalities in this study. The results of the study indicate that there are significant inequalities in access to WASH services across provinces in Pakistan. The urban household has more equal access to WASH services than the rural areas. This study provides comprehensive information to policymakers for policy making. Encourage partnerships and collaboration among government agencies, civil society organizations, private sector entities, and communities in order to harness resources and knowledge. Engage the media, community leaders, and powerful figures to champion the cause and foster a gender-equal culture of access to WASH services.</p> Aqsa Liaqat Muhammad Ilyas Ashfaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 5 2 245 256 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)24 Understanding Leadership Level of Principals, a Phenomenological Study in Punjab <p>The current study attempts to understand the leadership level of college principals in Punjab, Pakistan. Academia is facing various challenges. The need for vibrant, active, and proactive leadership is one of them. Leadership literature has a new dimension in the form of five levels of leadership by John Maxwell. There is a population and an empirical gap in the literature on the topic. It was a mixed-method research. A sequential explanatory design was used. The first was a survey, and in the second phase, the phenomenological approach was used to complete the study. Results revealed that demographics like experience and personal job status cause significant differences when assessing the principal's leadership level. College faculty believed their principals were at Pinnacle. It is recommended that this phenomenon be investigated at various levels of education and in different cultural contexts.</p> Rabia Ghaffar Ayaz Muhammad Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 5 2 257 270 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)25 Impact of Training and Development, Corporate Entrepreneurship and Job Characteristic on Employee Retention through the Job attitude in Insurance Industry of Pakistan <p>This study was intended to analyze the relationship of worker’s training and development, corporate entrepreneurship and job characteristic on employee retention in insurance industry of Pakistan. Whereas, Job Attitude towards insurance industry acts as a mediator in the relationships in between training and development, corporate entrepreneurship, job characteristic and employee retention. Today employees retaining is importance for any organization because of growing competition. And they have been totally reviewed in the framework of various industries. Also, here determinants of employee’s retention explained by the integration of social exchange concept. Analysis were conducted using data from a sample of 360 slaes staff of general insurance companies in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Data was collected through a questionnaire based on adopted scales. The instruments used to collect the data were Training and Development scale (Rogg et al. 2001) consists of 6-items. Corporate Entrepreneurship (Monsen and Boss 2009) consists of 30-items having four dimensions, innovation,&nbsp; risk taking, pro-activeness and entrepreneurship culture. Job Characteristic (Hackman and Oldham 1976), consists of 15-items and 5 dimensions each. Employee’s retention (Kyndt et al. 2009) et al. 2009), uni-dimensional scale having&nbsp; 11-items. Job attitude (porter 1974), two-dimensional i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment, consists of 14 items. Findings indicated that Training and development, corporate entrepreneurship and job characteristic were influence&nbsp; significantly in predicting employee retention through the job attitude (Job Satisfaction &amp; Org Commitment) as a mediation. Whereas, Training and development, corporate entrepreneurship and job characteristic found having significant direct relation with employee retention. Hence, it can be recommended that from various samples set or from various populations; the same investigation can be led on cross-national on cross-country premise.</p> Muhammad Alamgir Zujaj Ahmed Mehak Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-13 2024-04-13 5 2 271 283 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)26 Analyzing Academic English Writing Needs of Natural Sciences Researchers <p>The aim of present study is to investigate the needs of English writing skills of MS Researchers of Natural Sciences disciplines of Sialkot to achieve the targets. Insights for the undertaken study were taken from the theory of Needs Analysis Hutchinson &amp; Walters (1987). In this regard, researchers from three departments were considered: Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry and Department of Zoology. To judge the existing situation of researchers’ competence, questionnaire was used as an instrument. The questionnaire was comprised of two sections: Target Situation Analysis and Present Situation Analysis; was given to all researchers (n=120) of these departments. Findings reflect the existing situation of the researchers regarding writing skills is not satisfactory to cope up the research based activities. To overcome this problem, they are in need of EAP course to improve their writing skills.</p> Javeria Akhtar Iram Rubab Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 5 2 284 294 10.35484/ahss.2024(5-II)27