Annals of Human and Social Sciences <p><strong>Research of Social Sciences (SMC-Private) Limited (ROSS) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0. 0218990)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences is a <strong>Double-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> en-US <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>AHSS</strong> agree to the <strong>copyright policy</strong> under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>AHSS</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>AHSS</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access Policy</strong> for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /> </p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> (Dr. Gulzar Ahmed) (Dr. Abdul Ghani) Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 60 Knowledge of Nurses regarding Glasgow Coma Scale in Neurological Assessment of Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital Multan <p>The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of nurses regarding Glasgow Coma Scale in neurological assessment of patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital Multan. Neurological assessment is a fundamental aspect of patient care, the level of consciousness in patients with brain injuries has to assess with Glasgow Coma Scale. Descriptive cross sectional study design was used to carry out at Nishtar Hospital Multan. The sample size was 80 nurses. Convenient sampling method was used to collect the data. The results showed that 25 (28%) nurses demonstrated poor knowledge of the GCS, while 35 nurses (46%) exhibited an average level of understanding and 20 nurses (25%) showcased a good understanding of the GCS. In term of association, age groups show no significant association with knowledge levels. While gender, qualification, experience, and department of work exhibit significant associations with knowledge. Implement regular training sessions for nurses on the Glasgow Coma Scale.</p> Sidra Ahmad Ali, Shaheen Rafique, Ali Nawaz Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 03 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Media and the End of Musharraf Regime in Pakistan: An Analysis of Dawn’s Editorial Page on Judicial and Lal Masjid Crises (2007) <p>The central aim of this research is to analyze the relation between media and military regimes through Dawn, the most prestigious English newspaper of Pakistan, covering the judicial and Lal masjid crises, the two most decisive events in the political decline of Gen. Musharraf. The military regimes in Pakistan have always been initiated over the argument to safeguard the ‘national integrity’ or ‘national interest’ from the ‘corrupt and incapable politicians’ and end up giving them the government back again; and Gen. Musharraf’s military regime (1999-2008) was not an exception. There could be a list of explicit and implicit reasons that contributed in ending his regime but the two most decisive events were the judicial and Lal masjid crises (2007). Through the qualitative analysis of Dawn’s editorial page this research concludes that Dawn played its role in the restoration of democracy and recommends that free media is crucial for stable democracy.</p> Dr. Saima Perveen, Dr. Ahmad Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 04 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Role of Mobile Banking in Pakistan with Regard to Financial Inclusion <p>The main purpose of this study is to determine the role of mobile banking and its effects on economic growth and financial inclusion in Pakistan when gender acts as a moderating variable. As we know, mobile banking services remove time and space barriers from banking tasks like checking account balances and transferring funds between accounts, saving customers' time when visiting banks to use various banking services. Data was collected from the secondary source website of ‘State Bank of Pakistan’ as well as from various journals and articles spanning ten years, i.e., 2011–2021. Also, various analyses were applied to the secondary data, i.e., the unit root test, multicollinearity, descriptive statistics, and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis by using E-views 7.0, and it was concluded that mobile banking was among the significant determinants of financial inclusion and economic growth (GDP). Whereas, in moderator gender male behavior effects significantly among mobile banking variables, i.e., Access to Mobile Phone &amp; financial inclusion variables, i.e., (Number of mobile banking accounts &amp; Savings) and the G.D.P. And female behavior seemed to act as a key moderating factor among both the mobile banking &amp; financial inclusion determining factors, i.e., Number of mobile banking accounts. However, it has insignificant effects between the mobile banking variable, i.e., Access to Mobile Phone and financial inclusion variable, i.e., savings. Moreover, to improve generalizability, future research on other countries could be undertaken in addition to this one, using a larger data set because this study was limited to Pakistan only.</p> Mehak Ali, Muhammad Alamgir, Umar Hayat Rehmani Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 06 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Cyber Terrorism and Cyber Security after 9/11: Case Study of Women in Pakistan <p>The use of technologies for communication and information has made lives more interconnected today. Pakistan is progressing in the domain of technological innovations as well. The security of borders and space becomes an ongoing concern for Pakistani authorities, especially after 9/11. The goal of a comprehensive national security policy is lacking because Pakistan is ignoring the existential threat posed by cyberterrorism. Terrorists are gaining ground and jeopardizing numerous aspects of Pakistan's national security because of its poor cyber security. They are primarily looking out women to help in dissemination their ideologies. The study explores how terrorists, in particular, are radicalizing women through digital channels. Its primary emphasis is on how ISIS, BLA, and TTP operate online. The theory of social learning is applied. The study relies on a qualitative approach. Interviews are also conducted for data collection. Secondary sources, such as documents, newspapers, books, articles, and case studies are also analyzed. The study emphasizes on the women empowerment, awareness and education as well as the economic indepence of women.</p> Saqib Khan Warraich, Abeera Haider, Dr. Umair Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 06 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Motivation of Swat University Students towards learning English as a Second Language <p>The current investigation seeks to investigate the motivation of undergraduate students at Swat University towards learning English as a foreign language. Though English is mandatory at higher education, students motivation is depending upon the monetary and financial benefits associated with the language. Conducted with 20 students from various departments, data were collected using a 20-item written questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale, along with demographic information such as age, gender, and English learning duration. The survey items were adapted from Dornyei and Csizbher (2006) and Ryan (2005). The study focused on domains including integrativeness, attitudes towards the second language community, cultural interest, attitudes towards learning English, instrumentality (promotion and prevention), and fear of assimilation. Descriptive statistics analyzed through SPSS revealed that the primary motivation for learning English was instrumental, with integrative motivation also playing a significant role. Results of the study recommend exploiting these motivational behaviours and rationalize pedagogical stratgeies.</p> Khurshid Ali, Ftima Tuz Zara Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 06 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Twitter as a Tool of Propaganda: A Discourse Analysis of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) Twitter Propaganda on the Non-Confidence Movement <p>This study investigates PTI’s use of Twitter as a tool for propaganda in political crises and highlights the potency of Twitter in shaping the political landscape in Pakistan. The use of social media as a tool for political affairs has long been applied throughout the world by different world leaders and political parties. Similarly, Pakistan is no exception. Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf’s (PTI) use of Twitter as a propaganda tool during the non-confidence movement to influence public opinion and mobilize support is used as the case study. This research venture is based on the qualitative analysis of secondary sources. The information about the propaganda of PTI is sought from Twitter. The Tweets of Imran Khan have been investigated to address the core concerns of this study. Findings show that PTI’s Twitter campaign employed a blend of emotional appeals, nationalistic rhetoric, and discrediting political opponents to shape narratives and control discourses. Hashtags, multimedia content, and coordinated tweet storms were instrumental in strengthening PTI’s message. Thus, Twitter served as a critical platform for PTI to sustain its political narrative and counter opposition efforts. Therefore, this study recommends the formation of proper legislation for the proper use of social media to address such dangerous emerging trends in the country.</p> Sarmad Aftab Lashari, Ahsanullah Bhand, Sajjad Gul Katohar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 08 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Analysis of Shopping Malls in Lahore to Evaluate Design Provision for People with Special Needs <p>This paper aims to examine need based facilities provisions in the shopping malls in Lahore like, washrooms, elevators, ATMs, parking and navigational aids, as important attributes. The research adopted quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis, consisting of research and analytical phases. The Research phase involved data collection, literature review, case studies, interviews, which are then used to inform the Analytical phase to draw conclusions, by comparative analysis of local and international shopping malls concerning the provision of facilities for handicapped users. The research findings suggest though there are facilities provided but improvements are needed in several areas, especially in terms of design considerations for physically challenged users. The research offers a framework and modular analysis of the selected study, providing a contextual approach for the development of architectural design. It also recommends design innovations in the selected mall to address the identified discrepancies and enhance the user experience for designers to consider.</p> Rayyan Ahsan, Usman Awan, Mamuna Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 08 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Reimagining Indigenous Knowledge: An Epistemological Critique against the Neo-colonial Violence in the Selected African Novels <p>The objective of this study is to examine how indigenous knowledge can prove to be an effective source of liberating people from neo-colonial domination. While doing a textual analysis of the novels, Half of a Yellow Sun by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (2006) and The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born by Ayi Kwei Armah (1968), the research dilates upon the ideas of Edward W. Said’s (1978) Orientalism and Frantz Fanon’s (1963) The Wretched of the Earth, to celebrate indigenous knowledge formation practices. The methodological assumptions of this study help to describe the interaction of knowledge with power and subject formation in the context of colonial discourses. As a result, this work posits that the idea of knowledge can be used to accomplish the task of deconstructing coloniality and its domination schema. The study recommends that the novels promote indigenous episteme to impart agency and voice to the oppressed segments of society.</p> Quratulan, Arsalan Anjum, Ayesha Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Pakistan Power Position under the influence of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: An Analysis of Economic and Strategic Opportunities <p>This research paper wants to create the effects of CPEC on the Pakistan Power Position. Geographic location of Pakistan plays a particular role in its power ambition. The strategic and Economic benefits of Pakistan is connected with China. Pakistan is bordered by China which is the world’s second largest economy wants to reach in Gulf states, and toward the European and African markets. CPEC is the eminent project of the Belt and Road initiative which gives the shortest way to China in the Gulf region. In this paper, the data is collected by using qualitative method through content analysis. This multi-billion project has the potential to effect Pakistan’s national power elements. Pakistan being 6th largest populous country is capable of gaining major investment through CPEC. Geographic location of Pakistan is crucial in bringing economic stability as well as opportunities. Pakistan has to take appropriate measures for catching this project.</p> Sahar Fatima, Mehar Amna, Hina Saeed Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Navigating Water Security in South Asia: Towards Regional Cooperation and Sustainable Solutions <p>The research examines the costs of non-cooperation and the potential for regional cooperation among South Asian countries considering the intricate water dynamics. South Asia hosts multiple transboundary river basins, including the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra, making water a crucial asset for the socioeconomic growth of the region. The intensifying water scarcity, amplified by extreme climate change phenomena, has heightened competition and tensions among countries sharing these river systems. The study employed qualitative and quantitative methods that used majorly content and discourse analysis. The results of the paper show that the states of South Asia would be more inclined toward collaborating if they could acknowledge their shared interest and understand that the advantages of working together outweigh the conceivable disadvantages. It suggests that the riparian nations of the basin should depoliticize the water and require measures for effective cross-border water management, inclusive policies, and adequate institutional mechanisms while prioritizing sustainable solutions.</p> Maha Afzal Chaudhary, Muhammad Tanvir, Muhammad Haroon Munir Choudhry Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Understanding the Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan: A Case Study of the PML-N Regime (2013-18) <p>This Paper aimed to re-assess the changing dynamics of the Civil-Military relations during the period of the PML-N regime (2013-18). This Paper provided a review of the significant developments in the Civil-Military relations during the aforesaid period. This study has mainly relied on the descriptive and case study research methods i.e. for achieving the objectives of this research. The results of the study provided that the Civilian leadership of the PML-N regime simply failed to gain any extra roam for changing the traditional dynamics of the civil-military relations i.e. in favor of the democratically elected civilian leadership. Rather, the PML-N regime directly involved the military for overcoming the politico-economic and governance issues which obviously lead to sustain the traditional stronghold of the military i.e. in the politics of Pakistan. This study recommended that the political leadership shall have to change their own mindset first, and later, they have to devise a serious plan/strategy to bring the pre-requisite changes in the internal structure of the political parties i.e. for strengthening the base of democracy which serves as the actual source of strength for the civilian leadership. Additionally, for the purpose of gaining/enhancing the base of their legitimate power, the civilian leadership needs to focus on improving the overall quality of the governance as well.</p> Dr. Sharaf Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Buffer Solution: Multiculturalism and the Mourning of Intra-Ethnic Diversity in Homeland Elegies <p>This paper scrutinizes the intricate dynamics between multiculturalism and minority ethnic communities, particularly emphasizing multiculturalism's failure to address intra-ethnic diversity. This claim is unpacked through the textual and character analysis of Ayad Akhtar's novel, Homeland Elegies. By analyzing the experiences of four Pakistani American characters in the novel, the study argues that the broad labels such as "Muslim" and "Pakistani Muslim" obscure distinct heterogeneous identities within one ethnic identity. By taking aid from the theoretical concepts of Mondal's "multiculturalism as a divisive and devastating failure," Madood’s "additive rather than subtractive multiculturalism," “interculturalism as a distinctive alternative to multiculturalism,” and Hegelian "intersubjective recognition," this study aims to demonstrate the role of multiculturalism in erosion and distortion of minority ethnic identities. By focusing on the experiences of all Pakistani American characters, this study recommends adopting a nuanced multicultural approach that acknowledges and inclusively represents intra-ethnic diversity to prevent the distortion and erosion of minority ethnic identities</p> Farrah Ansari Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 From Attachment Insecurity to Trauma Expression: A Professional Exploration of Mental Health Consequences <p>This study aims to investigate the potential link between insecure attachment styles and Trauma symptoms. Specifically anxiety, depression, and sexual abuse trauma. Attachment theory describes the emotional bond of safety and comfort between a child and the caregiver. However, if that bond is ruptured the child develops an insecure attachment that leads to negative mental health consequences. A sample of female participants was recruited from various universities and wellness centers. The Adult Attachment Scale and Trauma Symptom Scale were administered to the participants. 50 females who scored high on the anxious attachment scale underwent further analysis using the trauma symptom scale. The findings indicated a significant correlation between anxious attachment and heightened levels of anxiety 0.539 (ρ=.03, P&lt;.05), depression 0.339 (ρ=.04, P&lt;.05), and no relationship with sexual abuse trauma -0.014 (ρ=.03, P&lt;.05). This study empirically supports the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles contribute significantly to Trauma Symptoms. These findings contribute to the existing body of knowledge, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions addressing insecure attachment styles to lessen the risk of Trauma Symptoms.</p> Areeja Shahid, Dr. Saima Massom Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploration of Innovative Characteristics of Alice Munro’s art of Short Story Writing with Specific Reference to her Short Story Dear Life: Contextual Analysis <p>This qualitative study aims to analyze Alice Munro’s short story “Dear Life” using close reading techniques to illustrate her exceptional skill in short story writing. Alice Munro is widely recognized for her mastery in crafting short stories, contributing significantly to contemporary literature. Her collection, "Dear Life," exemplifies her ability to breathe new life into the genre, distinguishing her from her peers. The study employs a close reading technique, meticulously examining the text to identify and analyze the distinctive characteristics of Munro’s writing. Specific references from "Dear Life" are used to highlight these novelistic features. The analysis reveals that Munro’s writing is marked by a unique narrative style, deep psychological insight, and rich character development. Her ability to weave complex themes into concise narratives sets her apart from other short story writers. Further studies could explore comparative analyses between Munro’s works and those of other prominent short story writers to better understand her influence and innovation in the genre. Additionally, investigating the reception of her work across different cultures could provide a broader perspective on her impact.</p> Muhammad Hassan Khoso, Wajid Hussain Khoso, Sumia Nourain Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 US Security Policy in South Asia during and after Cold War: An Analysis <p>This article is an attempt to analyze the US security policy in South Asia in the Cold War and after end of the Cold War. South Asia has always been important for the US's strategic objectives in the Asian continent to be advanced. The US's perception of the threat in Asia has long influenced its policy, which is limited to the construction of security systems there. The main focus of US security strategy in South Asia is maintaining peace and stability in the region. The triangular relationship between the US, Pakistan, and India is actually the main focus of US security policy in South Asia. The United States has consistently reevaluated its South Asian policy in light of its regional security objectives and interests. During the Cold War, Pakistan was seen as the US's "most allied ally in Asia" because of its perceived threat from the communist growing influence. Pakistan was thus selected to defend US interests in the region. After Cold War, the US's foreign and security policies were reorganized as a result of the new world order, which turned the world into a unipolar framework. India was chosen as a "natural partner" in the US security strategy for South Asia after it was restructured in light of the US security interests and aims in the Asia-Pacific region, where a new balance of power arrangement has evolved. The 9/11 brought new shift in US and Pakistan relations and both were involved in the fight against terrorism; nevertheless, this "single-issue alliance" is only meant to last temporarily. The research is primarily qualitative in nature. The objective of US policy in the region has always been the security of South Asia as a whole, not simply of one country. India and Pakistan were essential to US goals in the region. Consequently, it wanted to strengthen both states, whether against the Soviet Union or China. The US occasionally modified its security strategy in South Asia to take into account its shifting interests in the region.</p> Salma Amjad, Dr. Ahmad Ejaz Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Algorithmic Governance: Unveiling the Nexus between Artificial Intelligence and Policy Dynamics <p>It's commonplace for artificial intelligence (AI) to be incorporated into government worldwide these days. The objective of this research is to understand and scrutinize the relationship between policymaking and postmodern conceptions and inventions of AI and Algorithmic Governance. In the modern world, incorporation of the AI and technology into the processes of policymaking and governance is indispensable. Therefore, research needs to be conducted on this scenario as to analyze the relationship between policy dynamics and incorporation of AI into it. This research employs a qualitative approach, entailing case studies and consequent analyzation to demonstrate the connection of AI and governance. The research finds that the nexus between AI and policy dynamics in light of the algorithmic governance encompasses a wide variety of aspects, including fostering community participation, increasing policy effectiveness as well as considering the ethical boundaries. In the end, this work advances our understanding of the complex relationships between AI technology and policy dynamics, which may be helpful to researchers, policymakers, or other organizations traversing algorithmic management environments.</p> Muhammad Ijaz Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Qualitative Analysis of Local Government Elections 2001: A Case Study of District Peshawar <p>The aim and objective of this paper is to analyse local government elections 2001 in district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Local government is a very significant tier of governance in democratic societies. It manages the affairs of government at grass root level i.e. villages, towns, tehsils and districts. Pakistan inherited a more controlled and centralized local government system from British India after its inception in 1947. Unfortunately this important tier of governance did not developed with the passage of time in Pakistan. The devolution of power plan 2001 was an important step taken by General Pervez Musharraf. Reforms were introduced in civil bureaucracy and police and local bodies were strengthened. The study is based on qualitative method with Interviews, personal observations and common masses perceptions about the local government system in Pakistan. Results shows a power struggle between MNA’s, MPA’s and Nazims after the general elections in 2002. Bureaucracy with their colonial mindset succeeded in getting their powers back with the help of first tier of government.</p> Dr. Salman Anwar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Role of Social Media in Shaping Voting Patterns: A Comparative Study of 2018 and 2024 General Elections in Pakistan <p>This paper explores the pivotal role of social media in shaping voting patterns by implementing Stimulus Organism Response psychological theory. In Pakistan factors such as caste, religion, ethnicity, feudalism, vote selling and it is further compounded by rural and urban divide, family loyalties, community affiliations and male headed family influence voting patterns. The emergence of social media facilitates the candidate to communicate with a number of people from different areas and demographics with just a single click. Social media campaigns are influencing people especially the new voters and to the women who cannot attend traditional campaigns programs. It is a quantitative study based on a questionnaire survey targeting a broader demographics and sample size was 167 participants. The questionnaire was validated through expert reviews and pilot testing. Findings showed that social media highly influenced the decision making of people during elections and people have trust on social media. Use of social media to literate people should be encouraged due to its accessibility and cost effectiveness.</p> Maria Saleem, Waseem Hayat, Muhammad Jamsheed Akbar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Role of Judiciary and Police in Juvenile Delinquency: A Comprehensive Examination <p>The main objective of this research paper is to investigate the multifaceted roles of the judiciary and police in addressing juvenile delinquency and its underlying causes. Juvenile delinquency poses significant challenges to society, impacting youth development, public safety, and community well-being. The judiciary and police play crucial roles in addressing this issue by enforcing laws, providing rehabilitation and prevention programs, and fostering collaboration. A comprehensive review of literature, case studies, and empirical research was conducted to examine the policies, practices, and outcomes related to juvenile delinquency intervention by the judiciary and police. Findings of the revealed that both the judiciary and police have distinct, yet complementary roles in addressing delinquency. The judiciary focuses on adjudicating cases, imposing sanctions and providing rehabilitative services. The police play a vital role in prevention, early intervention, and community partnerships. Collaboration and coordination between these agencies are essential for effective and comprehensive intervention. Policymakers, practitioners, and stakeholders are encouraged to prioritize evidence-based approaches that address the root causes of juvenile delinquency. This includes early intervention programs, community-based policing, restorative justice practices, and tailored rehabilitation programs. Strengthening collaboration between the judiciary and police, as well as involving community organizations, is crucial for reducing recidivism and promoting positive youth development.</p> Mudassir Majeed, Abida Parveen, Muhammed Ashraf Zahoor Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Revolutionizing Food Security, Industrial Growth, and Agricultural Sustainability through Technological Advancements: A Comprehensive Research Analysis <p>Food processing, as a transformative process, plays a pivotal role in shaping the nutritional composition of food. The persistent menace of climate change poses a global threat, particularly impacting food security in developing nations and exerting its influence on crop productivity even in well-established regions. The multifaceted and intricate consequences of these ongoing climatic shifts significantly affect both food availability and population health. Consequently, there is a pressing need for a science-driven approach that can adeptly harness the opportunities presented by evolving environmental conditions to enhance food productivity and ensure security. The imperative for safe technological innovations becomes evident in advancing the realization of sustainable development goals (SDGs), particularly Zero Hunger. This study employs a literature review methodology to investigate the consequences of food security issues and also find out the best possible approaches to cover the maximum area to fertilize. Using a literature review methodology, the research highlights the importance of science-driven approaches and technological innovations in mitigating these impacts and advancing sustainable development goals, particularly Zero Hunger. The findings underscore the need for advanced food processing techniques, investment in research, supportive policies, capacity building, and collaboration to improve food availability and nutrition. Ultimately, the conclusions drawn from this research emphasize a positive correlation between safe food processing practices and achievement.</p> Ahsan Imtiaz, Fahad Zakir, Noroze Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 11 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Impact Assessment of Micro Finance Bank on Poverty Reduction in Kano State: A Case of Garko Local Government Area <p>The study examined the impact of microfinance banks on poverty reduction in Kano State, with particular focus on Garko Local Government Area, Microfinance and poverty has been a critical topic in the field of academic research. In recent years, microfinance institutions have gained significant attention as an effective tool for poverty alleviation. The the study used primary data generated from questionnaire administered to 290 sample size. The study uses logit regression model and examined the impact of microfinance banks on poverty reduction in Kano State. The findings show that all the variables (sex, educaltional level, income level, interest rate and loan size) are statistically significant in influencing poverty reduction in Garlo Local Government of Kano State while age is negatively related to poverty reduction and statistically insignificant. The study therefore recommends that, microfiance banks should expand the size of their loan to businesses, which will significantly improved the lives of the poor in the area. Micro finance banks should have a moderate interest rate that will encougare the poor and businesses to loan more fund for investment, increase income and reduce poverty.</p> Agbir Mzungweg, Ishaya John Mailamba, Titus Wuyah Yunana Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Impact of Social Change on Individual’s Behavior: A Study of Human Development <p>Social change can refer to a quick, profound restructuring of social, economic, and political structures, or it might mean a gradual development of new lifestyles.The main objective of this study is to examine how people respond to societal change, including how they perceive, experience, and act upon it, as well as how these responses impact human development. For analysing all these changes, qualitative research methodology is opted while taking all changes into considerations through analytical method which focused on systematic analysis. Human development could be understood by researching how individuals develop in a dynamic social environment. This study interlinks social change and human development, two very different phenomena, by viewing individual’s behavior as an active, lifelong process during these times of social change. The current rapid pace of social, technological, and economic change should be accepted and new ways of development must be adopted so that social change can impact on the human development directly and it could be beneficial for the whole society.</p> Dr. Tahira Mumtaz, Muhammad Yaqoob Hijazi, Dr. Muhammad Waris Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Food Insecurity and Scarcity in Pakistan: Causes and Impacts <p>The objective of this paper is to highlight the issue of food insecurity in Pakistan along with the causes and impacts of this crisis in recent years. The background of the concept of national security is extremely important and food scarcity has been on the rise in the past few years in Pakistan; its causes ranging from the exacerbating climatic conditions to inefficient management of resources and production. There is a dire need to tackle this issue in order to prevent the rising numbers of poverty and starvation from escalating further. The metholodgy includes using secondary sources such as journal articles, books, research papers etc to analyse and summarize the issue of food insecurity in Pakistan in recent years. The results of this research paper indicate that the food shortage has reached unprecedented levels with the recent flooding and climate change. The recommendations summarized at the end of this research paper is that the government of Pakistan needs to take immediate steps to install sustainable food policies that will counter the rising scarcity.</p> Mahum Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 A Critical Examination of Scientism and its Implications <p>The idea of scientism and the problems that surround it are examined critically in this study. Scientism, the belief that the scientific method and its findings are the only reliable path to knowledge, has received a lot of attention in contemporary debate. Even if science unquestionably offers insightful knowledge about the natural world, accepting scientism at face value has detrimental implications on epistemology, ethics, and society as a whole. To analyse and assess scientism, a qualitative research design was used. Relevant documents, academic works, and philosophical literature were examined to provide context-rich understanding. The results of the investigation showed that scientism undermines marginalises alternate forms of knowledge, demolish traditional ethics and humanistic values. These results demonstrate the drawbacks and negative effects of scientism. It is crucial to adopt a more inclusive and balanced approach to epistemology, ethics and ontology embracing insights from philosophy, religion, and the humanities alongside scientific contributions.</p> Dr. Muhammad Rasheed Arshad Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Complex Interplay between Political Rule and Social Inequality: A Comparative Analysis <p>This research paper aims to examine the relationship between political rule and social inequality in different governance systems. The background of the study is that it compares democracies (USA) with authoritarian regimes (North Korea, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Russia, and Iran). The methodology uses the Gini coefficient and poverty rates to measure social inequality and analyzes how economic regimes, political ideologies, and demographic factors contribute to disparities within societies. The results suggest that inflexible constitutions perpetuate social inequality, and individuals' political culture and ideologies can either mitigate or worsen inequality. Centralized institutional frameworks with limited accountability and corruption are ineffective in addressing social inequality. While liberal democracies generally have lower Gini coefficients and poverty rates, this relationship is not always linear but multifaceted due to demographic, leadership and social variables among others. It is recommended that all regimes are equally responsible in providing services to their populations that prioritize social justice.</p> Ayesha Younas, Muhammad Fareed, Dr. Anwar Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring the Relationship between Media Literacy and Political Engagement <p>This study aims to investigate the relationship between media literacy and political engagement, addressing assumptions and concerns regarding their association. While scholars and educators anticipate a positive correlation between media education and prosocial objectives like political and civic engagement, empirical evidence supporting this link remains limited. Cross-sectional design employs survey method to collect data from sample of 357 university students. Multistage sampling techniques are utilized to ensure representativeness. Valid and reliable survey instruments assess participants' levels of media literacy and their engagement with political activities. The findings reveal significant relationships between news media literacy and key measures of political engagement: political activities, current events knowledge and internal political efficacy. Additionally, certain dimensions of news media literacy are associated with lower levels of political trust among participants. The study recommends integrating comprehensive media literacy programs in university curricula to enhance political engagement. Further research should explore these dynamics across different populations.</p> Syeda Ammarah Bano, Sofia Mubbsher, Lubna Zaheer Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Bridging the Gulf: Socioeconomic Disparities and the Fight for Political Inclusion in Pakistan <p>This paper discusses how political participation is affected by socioeconomic differences: differences related to regions, demography, and history in the Pakistani context. The study aims to highlight major exclusion drivers through qualitative approaches: interviews and focus groups with stakeholders namely politicians, community representatives, and excluded people. Some of these barriers include political resources such as voting which is restricted, Discrimination and Power which has been placed on the side of those with higher income. The results shed the light on the need to properly address the issue of resource equality, the necessity of improving the level of people’s political awareness, and demanding activity for the implementation of the diversity policies. Therefore, the research supports the published structural deficiencies of political system in Pakistan and calls for the policy interventions.</p> Zaryab Fatima, Nida Riaz, Arslan Asghar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Contentious Politics and Digital Media: Analyzing Effects of Pro-Pti Facebook Contents on Psychological Wellbeing of Users <p>To investigate the effects of pro-Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) Facebook content on the psychological well-being of users and explore how users process information and form perceptions in the context of contentious politics. The study is set against the backdrop of contentious politics in Pakistan, where social media has become a significant platform for political discourse. The Elaboration Likelihood Model provides a framework for understanding how users process information and form attitudes. A sample of 200 Pro-PTI Facebook users was selected through purposive sampling and surveyed to examine the effects of exposure to anti-establishment content on their psychological well-being. The findings suggest that exposure to pro-PTI content on Facebook contributes to a trust deficit in the political system and institutions of Pakistan, leading to the formation of stereotypes, perceived realities, and frustration, ultimately affecting users' psychological well-being.</p> Wasif Ali Khan, Dr. Seemab Far Bukhari, Tahira Nasir Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Revisiting Benazir Bhutto and her Contribution to Restore Democracy in Pakistan <p>The main objective of this study is to explore, investigate and analyze the struggle of Benazir Bhutto to restore democracy in Pakistan. Benazir was the daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a legendary political leader and Prime Minister of Pakistan who was not only deposed from power in 1977 but was also hanged by the military ruler, Gen. Zia-ul-Haq, in 1979. She chose her father’s path, started her political career and launched a resistance movement (MRD) against an autocratic ruler Gen. Zia and forced him to restore democracy. She was the first Muslim woman in the Muslim world who, by dint of her sheer leadership qualities, rose to the office of Prime Minister twice (1988 and 1993) which is the highest seat of executive office in a democratic system. She had to pass a thorny path of forcing the military dictator to restore democracy in Pakistan.</p> Dr. Muhammad Azeem Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Women's Rights Laws in Pakistan: Challenges and Solutions <p>Women's rights in Pakistan have been a focal point of national and international discourse for decades. Despite significant legislative advancements, including the Protection of Women against Violence Act (2016) and the Anti-Rape Ordinance (2020), Pakistani women continue to face substantial barriers to equality and justice. Main objective of this research is to explore the state of women's rights laws in Pakistan, focusing on the challenges and potential solutions for improving gender equality and protection for women. Its historical review analyzes the intersection of national legislation and international human rights norms, highlighting persistent challenges faced by women. This study employs a qualitative research design to explore the challenges and solutions related to women's rights laws in Pakistan. The research involve a combination of primary and secondary data collection methods to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject. Semi-structured interviews with stakeholders, such as lawmakers, solicitors, and schematic survey of society norms provide a broad results of women rights laws in Pakistan. Results analysis show Key challenges like cultural and societal norms, inadequate implementation and enforcement of laws, and limited awareness and education regarding women's rights. Furthermore, it proposes solutions to enhance the impact of women's rights laws in Pakistan. By addressing these issues, Pakistan can move towards a more equitable society where women's rights are fully realized and protected.</p> Abdul Qayyum Gondal, Prof. Dr. Zulkarnan Hatta Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Effect of Teachers' Instruction on Learners' Social Skills, Self-Confidence Building, Relationship Building, and Mannerism in Early Childhood Education <p>The study intended to explore effect of teachers' instruction on learners' social skills of self-confidence building and relationship building in Early Childhood Education. The study was experimental in nature in which the quantitative method was used. The randomized pre-test and post-test control group design was applied. The study hypotheses were to investigate that there is no statistically significant effect of teachers’ instruction on learners’ social skills, there is no significant association between teachers’ instruction and learners’ social skills of self-confidence building and there is no significant association between teachers’ instruction and learners’ social skills of relationship building in early childhood education. The sample size was selected from expected population and seventy participants were chosen randomly by using a random number table from those enrolled students during the 2023 academic year. The learners’ social skills observation checklist was employed as data collection tool to examine the association between groups and statistically analyzed through non-parametric test of chi-square. The study recommends that the play-way method of instruction is more effective in developing learners' social skills as compared to traditional methods.</p> Ghazala Shaheen, Dr. Naeem Ullah, Dr. Jam Muhammad Zafar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Women in Legislature-Representation and Participation Challenges Analysis of Punjab Assembly (2013-2018) <p>The study highlights that women's inclusion in decision-making processes is a transformative dynamic that ultimately leads to the Community empowerment. It evaluates the extent of women's representation on decision-making positions and their inclusion in the legislative process, with the focused analysis of Punjab Assembly during the democratic era of 2013-2018. Despite various International measures aimed at enhancing gender parity, women's insufficient representation and inactive participation in political decision-making perpetuates barriers to achieving societal gender equality. The situation in Pakistan remains dire, as entrenched patriarchal structures and many other factors continue to impede women's meaningful participation in decision-making processes. The study adopts mix method approach, utilizing secondary data sources and identifies various factors that constrain women's effective participation. It contends that despite the establishment of reserved seats for women, their substantive engagement in decision-making remains suboptimal. It recommends that certain measures will be helpful to ensure women’s effective and operative role in the legislature, including consensus building between women legislators, their appointment on decision-making positions, and conduction of training regarding parliamentary proceedings.</p> Dr. Hina Rashid Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Pakistan’s Brain Drain Dilemma: A Content Analysis <p>The fundamental objective of this paper is to explore the causes and consequences of brain drain in Pakistan, and also test their validity in a scientific manner. Pakistan has been losing its precious human capital since 1960s. However, the trend has increased rapidly in the recent time. Reportedly 859,846 Pakistanis have left the country in 2023, among those 100,000 were professionals and skilled workers. The paper has interpreted the data in a qualitative manner and has used content analysis as a design to find the end results. It claims that economic meltdown, unemployment, political instability, and poor living and working conditions are the major causes, while loss of human talent, low growth, social unrest, and poor health and education services are the major consequence of brain drains in Pakistan. Hence, putting the economy on track, improving employment, achieving political stability and maintaining better living and working standards for the citizens, may help the government to retain the talent within.</p> Muhammad Yaqoob Hijazi, Dr. Thaira Mumtaz, Aizaz Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Effect of Brain Drain on the Economic Growth of Developing Countries: Evidence from Pakistan <p>The escalating trend of brain drain in developing countries like Pakistan necessitates urgent attention from political leadership to avert potential impediments to national development. Objective of study is to explore the root causes, consequences, and ramifications of brain drain on Pakistan's economic trajectory. This research employs a mixed-methods approach, integrating qualitative and quantitative practices. While, data analysis is carried by employing the ordinary least squares (OLS) technique to evaluate relevant data and trends. The results reveal a negative correlation between brain drain and economic progress, highlighting the challenges posed by talent migration to sustainable development. Notably, the study also revealed an inverse correlation between brain drain, remittances, and economic advancement, while highlighting a positive linkage between human capital augmentation and economic prosperity within the Pakistani context. Drawing from these insights, the study recommends for targeted policy interventions, mitigating adverse effects of brain drain on Pakistan's economic landscape.</p> Dr. Assad Mehmood Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Academic Performance of Students with Hearing Impairments: A Study in Post-Primary Special Education <p>The study investigates the academic achievement of students with hearing impairments in English, Urdu, and Mathematics after completing a five-year primary special education program in Punjab's public sector. Students with hearing impairments often face academic challenges, highlighting the need for evaluations to guide targeted educational interventions. A descriptive cross-sectional design with a quantitative approach was used. A sample of 56 students, selected through simple random sampling, was assessed using curriculum-aligned tests in English, Urdu, and Mathematics. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential techniques, with scores categorized into below average, average, and above-average levels. Most students scored below average in reading, writing, and numeracy. A significant gender difference was found in the Urdu Written Test (p = .013). No significant differences were noted for other demographic variables. Educational institutions should implement tailored interventions to address the specific needs of students with hearing impairments to improve their academic outcomes.</p> Dr. Asma Kanwal, Dr. Rukhsana Bashir, Sana Qaisar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 20 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Analysis of the Law of Insanity Defense in the United Arab Emirates <p>The objective of this research is to analyze the law on insanity defense in the United Arab Emirates. The criminal law of the United Arab Emirates recognizes the principle of the defense of insanity against the criminal liability of an accused. The doctrinal legal analysis approach was adopted to study the defense of insanity in the United Arab Emirates. The defense of insanity in the United Arab Emirates is dealt with under Article 138 of Federal Law No. 31 (2021), which primarily revolves around the principle of the complete inability to control one’s actions at the time of perpetration of an offense due to mental disorders. However, the role of medical opinion is pivotal in determining the plea of insanity. This law can be further developed by amending it and inculcating insights from the latest developments in mental health sciences.</p> Ali Ajmal, Faiza Rasool Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 21 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0500