Annals of Human and Social Sciences <p><strong>Research of Social Sciences (SMC-Private) Limited (ROSS) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0. 0218990)</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences is a <strong>Double-blind peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> en-US <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>AHSS</strong> agree to the <strong>copyright policy</strong> under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>AHSS</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>AHSS</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>Annals of Human and Social Sciences (AHSS)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access Policy</strong> for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /> </p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> (Dr. Gulzar Ahmed) (Dr. Abdul Ghani) Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 60 Hurdles to Women's Participation in Sports Activities in Urban and Rural Communities in Pakistan: An Investigation <p>The purpose of this study is to Investigate the hurdles to Women's Participation in Sports Activities in Urban and Rural Communities in Pakistan. Today, the role of women in social activities in Pakistan society is more important than ever. Despite the increasing presence of women in the social arena, their participation and attendance in sports activities are limited. The data of this study were collected using a questionnaire on hurdles to women's participation in sports activities. Findings indicated that the two groups of urban and rural women reported similar priorities, with the highest priority being related to economic and personal Hurdles. The lowest priorities were related to family, cultural Hurdles. With extensive and targeted advertising, a variety of mass entertainment programs of sports activities can be assigned to the adult age categories. Such interventions will lead to better welfare and quality of life for women in urban and rural communities.</p> Dr. Mehwish Manzoor, Saira Yaqoob, Tehzin Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 A Structuralist Narratological Analysis of Mohsin Hamid’s Novel The Last White Man <p>This research article conducts a comprehensive Structuralist Narratological Analysis of Mohsin Hamid’s novel, The Last White Man. Employing the framework of structuralist theory, the study explores the intricate narrative structures and underlying patterns within the text, shedding light on the novel’s construction and the significance of its narrative elements. The analysis delves into the interplay of characters, plot, and discourse, unraveling the textual complexities that contribute to the overall meaning and aesthetic experience of the novel. By applying structuralist principles to The Last White Man, this research aims to deepen our understanding of the novel's literary craftsmanship and thematic intricacies, offering valuable insights into Hamid's narrative choices and their implications for the broader field of literary studies.</p> Sana Anam, Dr. Muhammad Ajmal, Hafiz Rizwan Sharif Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Nexus between Out of School Children and Child Disability: An Empirical Study based on household survey of Sindh, Pakistan <p>In the contemporary world, no dimension of the world lives long without the aid of Goal-4 of SDGs focuses on inclusive, quality and equity based educational opportunities for everyone. The biggest barrier to achieve this goal is Out of school children. This paper analyses causal factors of this issue from child functioning perspective. This analysis uses microdata of Sindh MICS 2018-19 and the child disability is computed from the Child Functioning Module of the 5-17 Years-Questionnaire. Results of the study reveals that child disability is a significant determinant of out of school children. Female children are mostly likely to be out from the school as compare the male children; poverty also plays the pivotal role to keep children away from school. Children whose mothers are more educated and are living in the richer quintiles, have low risk of being out of school. Difficulties in child functioning domains such as seeing, self-care, communication and making friend are found significant determinants of out of school children.</p> Muhammad Kazim Jafri, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Kamran Younus Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Foucaultian Discourse Analysis of Amiri Baraka’s Great Goodness of Life (1969) <p>The major objective of this research is to explore and analyze the, language, segregation and social and political discourses in Imamu Amiri Baraka’s play The Great Goodness of Life (1969). This play also focuses on the cultural isolation, Black creativity, African American status, and sensibility of black Individual. Baraka/ LeRoi Jones reveals the status of black individual in twentieth century American society. In this play, Baraka presents two major characters Court Royal (An African Ameircan man) and the Voice of the Judge (an invisible character) represent the contradictions in American society. He presents the issues and problems faced by the Blacks in the segregated social and judicial system of America. This is qualitative research and Michel Foucault’s (1926-1984) Critical Discourse Analysis has been applied to this text which would help the reader to understand the social and political discourses offered by Baraka.</p> Faiza Zaheer Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Teachers’ Perceptions of Translanguaging as a Pedagogical Tool in Multilingual Education <p>This research main objective of this study is to examine the use of translanguaging as a pedagogical tool in classrooms with multiculturalism. Translanguaging is the practice of utilizing a student's full linguistic repertoire, including their native language and other languages they may know, to facilitate learning and communication in the classroom. The study explores the effectiveness of translanguaging in promoting equitable and inclusive education for multilingual students and fostering a positive learning environment for all students. The research utilizes a mixed-methods approach, including qualitative observations and interviews with teachers and students, as well as quantitative data analysis to measure academic outcomes. The findings indicate that the use of translanguaging positively impacts student learning and engagement, improves student-teacher relationships, and promotes a sense of belonging for multilingual students. The study suggests that the implementation of translanguaging in classrooms with multiculturalism can lead to more inclusive and effective education for all students.</p> Dr. Nazish Andleeb, Dr. Afsheen Salahuddin, Dr. Fouzia Ajmal Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Access to Education for Transgender Individuals in Pakistan: Cultural and Institutional Barriers <p>Transgender individuals face multifaceted challenges when it comes to their education in Pakistan. The objective of the study was to investigate the cultural and institutional challenges faced by transgender individuals. We designed the present qualitative study to understand their nature of challenges by immersing in real-life situations. The research design was phenomenology in nature. The participants were transgender individuals from Faisalabad. The sample consisted of eight transgender individuals selected using a snowball sampling technique. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews protocol guide, which were analysed using the thematic data analysis technique following a six-stage guide by Braun and Clarke (2006). The authors found that cultural barriers that hindered their education process in Pakistan were parental issues, social unacceptance, and social stigma. Institutional barriers that negatively affected their education were a lack of policies and legal protection in schools, inadequate teacher training, and inappropriate facilities in schools. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended comprehensive awareness programmes inside and outside educational settings for the acceptance of transgender individuals in society and schools.</p> Saida Noreen, Dr. Khalid Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Maximizing Subject Matter Knowledge of Science Teachers through Professional Development Plan and Training <p>The study examined the effect of content-based professional development training in science subject on teachers’ achievement in science at primary school level. Professional development trainings develop and improve the required abilities and skills essential to impart quality teaching. The study has been conceptualized on Knowles (1984) theory of adult learning that assumed that adults should be involved in the planning and evaluation of their learning as this experience provides them basis to teach the subject which is relevant to their lives. The study employed one group pre-test post-test experimental design. 140 primary school teachers from 5 clusters in Sheikhupura district were selected as a sample of the study. The teachers received 40 hours training during the span of one week. They were pre-tested and post-tested using researcher made test based on the content taken from grade 5 science textbook. Descriptive statistics and paired samples t-test were used to analyze the data. The study found a significant difference in achievement scores of teachers’ pre-test and post-test i.e. posttest scores were better as compared to pre-test. The study concluded that the content-based professional development training of teachers in science subject at primary school level is significantly important. The researcher recommends improving subject matter knowledge of science teachers to achieve the targets about the provision of quality education.</p> Dr. Muhammad Akram, Zainab Kamran, Dr. Muhammad Irfan Malik Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Cultivating Communication Skills through Non-Verbal Communication: A Case Study <p>This study aims to explore the impact of nonverbal communication on the development of communication skills, particularly for ESL learners. Nonverbal cues, including gestures, eye gaze, facial expressions, and body language, play a crucial role in bridging communication gaps. Data collection involved the use of questionnaires and observations, with a focus on 100 male and female BS English learners at Qurtuba University D.I. Khan. The collected data underwent a comprehensive analysis using both qualitative and quantitative research principles. The anticipated outcomes of this research are expected to highlight the importance of integrating nonverbal communication strategies in ESL pedagogy. The insights gained from this study aim to assist educators in optimizing their teaching methods and contribute to the broader conversation on effective ESL instruction. Emphasizing the complementary role of nonverbal communication, this research ultimately seeks to enhance culturally responsive language learning experiences.</p> Ishrat Fatima, Dr. Muhammad Ajmal, Ikramullah Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Role of Teachers in Developing Learners’ Speaking Skills at Primary Level in District Hyderabad <p>The purpose of this study was to find out the role teachers play in developing learners’ speaking skills at primary level in District Hyderabad. The nature of the study was Quantitative Survey research designs. Quantitative data were collected through structured surveys and distributed to primary school teachers across District Hyderabad, while qualitative insights were gathered through in-depth interviews with selected teachers and students. The researchers used Google forms to design the questionnaire and distributed it via email, WhatsApp and social media platforms to get the responses from the target group. Percentages and means technique were used to analyse the data by utilizing SPSS. The outcomes of this study are expected to inform educational strategies, teacher training programs, and curriculum design, fostering an enriched learning experience for primary school students in District Hyderabad and potentially serving as a model for similar educational contexts worldwide.</p> Shahnaz Jumani, Sourath Seelro, Dr. Nazish Andleeb Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Analysis of the Islamic Law and its Compatibility with Artificial Intelligence as a Emerging Challenge of the Modern World <p>This research article explores the complexities surrounding Islamic law and the challenges it encounters in the contemporary Era of Artificial Intelligence in global landscape. It examines issues related to preserving tradition while embracing modernity, compatibility with Artificial intelligence, women's rights and gender equality, human rights and religious freedom, pluralism and minority rights, modern finance and ethical practices, technology and bioethics, and engagement with international law. Islamic law, known as Sharia, is a comprehensive legal framework derived from the Quran, Hadith, and interpretations by Islamic scholars. It has guided Muslim societies for centuries, providing guidelines for various aspects of life. However, in the modern world, Islamic law faces numerous challenges that demand critical analysis and thoughtful responses. For the purpose to explore ground reality, Doctrinal research method is employed and relied on already available data. Present research results are given by descriptive method. No one can avoid to use modern technology but Muslim world is facing many issues in present situations. Researcher recommends that only reinterpretation of Islamic laws, awareness, unity on common intrest issues and Ijtehad can save integrity and soul of Islamic Law.</p> Shabana Kausar, Ali Raza Leghari, Abdul Salam Soomro Copyright (c) 2023 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Current Status and Future Directions for Industrial Waste Management in Quetta City, Pakistan <p>Present study tries to identify the existing industrial waste management practices in different industrial areas of Quetta city. Industrial waste, results as rapid urbanization, population, industrialization and economic growth, is the source of environmental threats but if it is managed in a proper manner from generation to final disposal, remain not a problem anyway. Primary data for this descriptive study is collected through pre-designed questionnaire and checklists. Comparative tabular description for the both industrial areas is made on the basis of provided information. Findings revealed that the situation regarding waste management of industrial areas of Quetta city is not up to the mark from collection to final disposal. Even the hazardous industrial waste has not dealt under special precautionary methods. Raising awareness, devising industrial waste management rules/regulations and managing the waste just at point of production at industrial unit are strongly recommended areas for improvement</p> Farhana Amir Ali, Dr. Ghulam Murtaza, Sumra Sajida Tufail Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Assessing the Ignored Potential: Employing and Assessing Art Design Installations to Revitalize Islamabad's Urban Open Spaces <p>Urbanization has diffused the essence of the Islamabad’s city true spirit of a modern day Capital city with lush green urban open spaces and mountainous views. This negatively impacted the open and green spaces within city. Open spaces can be used for multiple purposes including landscape, temporary shelters, parks, etc. but one of the most recent and underutilized option in engaging the public at large and facilitating them though functional usage is the art installations in open spaces. The research focused on public perceptive evaluation and how design of art installation may relive the urban open spaces. Data was collected through observational study and structured questionnaire at multiple locations in the city. People were neither aware nor educated about these installations and their functional usage. It was also observed that people need design to address their concerns of shading, shelter, water supply, landscape, lighting, etc. It was concluded that these spaces need to have a sense of security and belonging or ownership to the society and the public at large with allied functional requirements of the general public to opt for their utilization. These spaces need to engage people through addressing their needs for temporary time utilization and hence can be opted for improved occupancy.</p> Architect Omer Shujat Bhatti, Architect Muhammad Ubaid Hanif, Architect Nazia Iftakhar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Representation of Political Marches in The Headlines of Selected English Newspapers <p>This article analyses the notion of discursivity in the headlines of selected English newspapers of Pakistan in construction of the phenomenon of ‘political marches’ launched by Pakistani politicians before the election on the twist of the history when deep state was in its struggle to counter the two mainstream political parties of Pakistan. In this regard, three English newspapers (Dawn, The News International and The Nation) were selected for the current study. In concern to media language in Pakistani press, it is commonly shared notion that media plays its role positively and has no hidden agendas to achieve. However, the study was conducted with the proposition that instead of producing factual information, media discourses serve the purpose of manipulating the ideas of the readership. To study this phenomenon, it has been explored that how political marches are socially, discursively and linguistically represented in the selected Pakistani English newspapers. In this respect, the news headlines have been analyzed at text (description) level focusing on the use of metaphor, metonymy, modality, lexical choices, and nominalization in the selected headlines. Additionally, the news headlines have been analyzed at broader social and political context in order to find ideological underpinnings incorporated in selected media discourse. Fairclough’s (1989) three-dimensional model has been used for the analysis of this study which leads to the conclusion that discourse producers exercise a constant and systematic strategy of discursive and exclusionary nature towards political quarters of their concern to regulate the opinion of their readership.</p> Dr. Arshad Mehmood, Shabina Rashid, Mehwish Kaleem Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 01 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Nature's Voices: Exploring Eco-Feminist Perspectives in Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart <p>Eco-feminism posits that the subjugation of women is intricately connected to the oppression of nature. The study focuses on the examination of the intricate relationship between women and ecology, asserting that the marginalization of women and the exploitation of nature are intertwined. Discrimination and oppression stemming from power dynamics related to class, gender, and race are directly correlated with environmental exploitation. In patriarchal societies, women and nature are commonly perceived as fertile entities capable of providing life, care, and shelter. This paper highlights the Chinua Achebe's use of characters like Ani, the earth goddess, and Ezeani, the priest of the goddess, to underscore the parallels between women and their significance in terms of fertility and production. Additionally, it aims to conduct a comparative analysis of the female characters in Things Fall Apart in relation to nature, examining the exploitation of both women and the environment depicted in the novel. The study also analyzes dominant male practices in Things Fall Apart, emphasizing how women and nature are portrayed as innocent, female, productive, and susceptible to exploitation.</p> Nayab Anwar, Arooba Hussain, Eram Amjad Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 02 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Marine Pollution in The Maritime Zones of Pakistan: A Green Theory Perspective <p>Marine pollution poses a significant threat to the maritime zones of Pakistan which is adversely affecting the marine ecosystem and human well-being. This paper aims to examine the challenges associated with marine pollution in Pakistan's maritime zones and propose strategies for countering its detrimental effects. The strategies to counter marine pollution in countries like Denmark, Norway, Indonesia, and South Africa have been discussed and how these strategies can be implemented in Pakistan. Data has been collected from primary and secondary sources. The discussion regarding countering marine pollution has been made under the theoretical lens of the green political theory, which adopts an eco-centric view instead of an anthropogenic view. To address the challenges faced due to marine pollution, this paper recommends using legislative measures, technological advancements, public awareness campaigns, and international cooperation. Enforcing stricter pollution control standards, and promoting sustainable practices in industries are important towards reducing pollution. Also, the adoption of advanced technologies for wastewater treatment and oil spill response, combined with regular monitoring and surveillance, can help to contribute to pollution prevention and control.</p> Noor-ul-Ain Baig, Dr. Muhammad Usman Askari Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Mediating Character of Commitment between Brand Image and Customer Loyalty: A Study of Banking Sector of Pakistan <p>This paper attempts to inspect the mediating role of commitment in enhancing customer loyalty and to explore the impact of brand image on commitment, and ultimately toward customer loyalty. Survey method is employed in this study. Questionnaires were distributed to 450 respondents who have a personal bank account in any commercial bank of Pakistan. Out of 450 questionnaires distributed, 379 valid responses are analyzed in the study. The findings of the study revealed that existence of commitment enhances the impact of brand image on the loyalty of the customer. The findings of the study are useful for the marketing departments of financial institutions e.g. commercial banks so they can understand the role of building bank image to enhance customer loyalty. It is recommended that marketing strategies of the bank should focus on improving their brand image which in turn will lead to the higher customer loyalty. Banks in Pakistan may target establishing their bank image via offering range of services and their service quality so that they can ensure loyal customer that can ultimately enhance their profitability</p> Ahmed Hassan Jamal, Moazzam Ali, Muhammad Ehsan Javaid Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Wed, 03 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Extinction of Words from Use: A Critical Aspect of Balti Language Endangerment <p>The current study seeks to identify extinct words from the Balti language among Balti speakers in Skardu, Baltistan. Both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were employed for this investigation. The data was analyzed based on the Language Endangerment criteria, which categorizes languages as Safe, Lesser Extinct, Less Extinct, Extreme Extinct, or Extinct. A sample of two hundred participants was randomly chosen from three educational institutions in Baltistan: 50 female participants from Women's Degree College, 50 female participants from Elementary College, and 100 male participants from the University of Baltistan Skardu. The researchers utilized questionnaires and conducted interviews to gather and validate the data. Specifically, the study examined forty Balti words among Balti language users. The findings revealed that 13 words were categorized as 'less extinct', 19 as 'extinct', and 8 as 'less extinct' based on the criteria.</p> Nuzhat Bano, Abdul Rehman Mir, Dr. Muhammad Issa Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 04 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Breaking Chains and Building Empires: Unleashing Women's Potential through Education for Property Rights in Malakand Division, Pakistan <p>This study investigates the transformative impact of women's education on property rights in Malakand Division, Pakistan, with a focus on the historically marginalized Pakhtun society. Drawing from global perspectives, Islamic principles, and local contexts, the research explores how education empowers women to assert their legal rights, particularly in inheritance. The study addresses a significant gap in the literature by examining the nuanced relationship between education, women's empowerment, and property rights in a region where traditional norms have historically influenced women's rights. Utilizing a quantitative cross-sectional research design, the study employs a stratified random sampling technique to survey 700 married women with a minimum of 16 years of education actively asserting their property rights across seven districts in Malakand Division. The comprehensive data analysis using SPSS reveals a strong positive association between education and women's empowerment in property rights, supported by descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and regression models. The study concludes that education plays a pivotal role in shaping women's attitudes and actions regarding property rights, positively impacting confidence, awareness of legal procedures, and active participation in asserting ownership rights. The findings have broad implications for policy-making, emphasizing the need for targeted educational initiatives, awareness campaigns, community engagement programs, gender-inclusive property policies, capacity-building, and stakeholder collaboration to foster gender equality, justice, and empowerment in property rights for women in Malakand Division, Pakistan.</p> Umar Daraz, Jahan-Ul-Mulk, Ikram Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 04 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Effect of Conflict Management Styles on Organizational Commitment of University Teachers <p>The major objective of the study was to explore the effect of conflict management styles on organizational commitment of university teachers. Casual comparative research design was used. The population of the study was the teachers of public and private universities of Lahore and the sample for current study was 910 university teachers taken by using stratified random sampling. Strata were made on the basis of institution. Conflict management style scale developed by (Adkins, 2011) was used. The organizational commitment scale was developed by Allen and Meyer (1990). Results of this study showed that the factors of conflict management styles (Collaborating, Competing, Avoiding, and Accommodating) are significantly and positively effecting organizational commitment except compromising. It was recommended that workshops and seminar can be organized for the awareness about conflict management styles for universities teachers.</p> Dr. Mahvish Fatima Kashif, Taaba Zabrin, Dr. Rabia Tabassum Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 06 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Body Image and Mental Health Problems among University Students <p>The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body image have a relationship with the psychological distress, self-esteem and social adjustment among university students. After the review of the literature following hypotheses were formulated 1). There would be significant relationship between body image, psychological distress, self-esteem and social adjustment among university students. 2). Body image would predict mental health problems (psychological distress, self-esteem and social adjustment) among university students. For this study total 300 participants including 150 males and 150 females with the age range from18-35 years were selected through simple random sampling from different private and Govt universities located in Faisalabad. In order to measure the variables body image scale, psychological distress scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale and social adjustment scale were applied. Descriptive and inferential including Pearson correlation and regression analysis was used to calculate the results. Findings of the present study have shown that the both hypotheses were approved P&lt;.05. This study will be beneficial for the students, mental health professionals and people related to academia to manage the mental health of their clients and students.</p> Dr. Saleem Abbas, Gohar Afshan Batool, Irum Shahzadi Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 09 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Influence of Organizational Culture on Leadership Styles <p>This study aims to explore the impact of organizational culture on leadership styles in Pakistani universities. The study utilizes cultural dimensions theory (Hofstede’s insights) and the social exchange concept as theoretical lenses to examine the phenomena. Using a qualitative approach, 08 interviews were conducted with senior academics and non-teaching staff working in Pakistani universities. The findings reveal hierarchical, patriarchal, servile, and interdependent values as the underlying characteristics of organization culture, shaping the choice of leadership styles in the management of Pakistani universities. As a result, it emerged from the study that positional, formalized exchanges, relational approach, and gendered reactions to leadership were typically adopted in university administration in this context. The study relies on a small qualitative sample size, which makes the generalization of findings difficult. However, the study provides a good understanding of cultural hegemony, framing leadership styles different to those of other cultures. The findings of this study help to bridge the research gap concerning the implications of organizational culture, and its influence on leadership behaviors in the Asian context. Specifically, the study also enriches our understanding of cultural dimensions, informing the leadership methods adopted in higher education institutions.</p> Ayesha Tariq, Dr. Khawaja Hisham-Ul-Hassan, Syed Kashif Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Trauma of Migration and Environment: An Ecocritical Analysis of Exit West <p>The present study probes the effects of toxic discourse and trauma through which both humans and environment suffer in the novel Exit West (2017). The main objective of this research is to identify the toxicity and devastation of refugees and environment through trauma of migration. The study is qualitative in nature and Buell's Toxic Discourse (1998) and Caruth's Trauma Theory (1996) have been applied as a framework for the study. Analysis has been done by the use of textual method. Hence, the findings revealed that migration is a terrible event of human history which effects people both mentally and physically. Migration is a global issue and Exit West (2017) revealed that how time and climate act as the working force behind this terrifying journey.</p> Alina Tahir, Dr. Munazzah Rabbani Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Distinctive Analysis of Land Cover Change Exposure of Karachi through Multi-Temporal Remotely Sensed Imageries <p>Pakistan’s Sindh province is home to Karachi. Thus, the project is based on the changes in Karachi's land cover as seen by satellite imagery. The city contains a significant amount of open space as well as streams and estuaries, while having the highest density of population. All of the things that I have to keep an eye on, such as settlements, vegetation, the road system, agricultural regions, bare soil, coastal areas, barren areas, etc., can be clearly distinguished using satellite imagery from Landsat TM 30m in the years 2000, 2003, and 2014. Techniques from GIS and remote sensing are applied. Unsupervised classification has been carried out in all images. The work's outcome demonstrates a sharp increase in Karachi's built-up area between all of the aforementioned years, as well as a shift in the city's open spaces and decreased vegetation.</p> Naila Parveen Abbasi Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Eve Between East and West: A Psychoanalytical Study of Elif Shafak`s Three Daughters of Eve <p>The main purpose of this study is to examine how early experiences of childhood leave permanent imprints on human’s personality, determines the conflict between faith and doubt, fanaticism and skepticism in perspective of two different cultural and ideological beliefs, using qualitative research methodology. This work aims to find out that how Shafak’s Three Daughters of Eve (2016) speaks for her identity and what are the psychological factors which lead Peri to a confused state of mind under the lens of Erik Erikson’s Stages of development (1998) and The Reproduction of M¬othering articulated by Nancy Chodorow (1978). This current study’s findings show that, Shafak has uncovered the perpetual effects of family, society and tradition, which are deeply rooted in the psyche of every person from his/her childhood, leaving permenant imprints on one’s innerself. This study recommends that childrens are pliable during childhood, and they can be moulded according to the situation.</p> Naveed ur Rehman, Manaf Ali Shah, Aziz Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 12 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring Ethnic Discrimination and Hate Speech in Online Political Discourses: A Comprehensive Analysis from the Pakistani Context <p>This article establishes the presence of ethnic, racial and linguistic based hate content on politically oriented Facebook pages and as well explores prominent themes within these hate discourses to understand the promotion and propagation of ethnic, racial and linguistic based hate, intolerance and radicalization. A total of 94 Facebook post were purposefully collected and thematically analyzed with the help of NVIVO 12. The major theme revealed that ethnic diversification was framed as curse and threat for social harmony and development of the society. In online political discourses, specific ethnic, racial and linguistic groups were framed as “others” and “responsible” for destruction of social, cultural and political spheres of society. In these online discourses, specific groups were stereotyped and discriminated in much negative, disgusted hateful manner through directly demonizing with abusive language and derogatory remarks and dehumanized through comparing with specific animals like dogs, pigs etc. Different ethnic groups were discriminated and stereotyped on the basis of “Us vs Them” such as Baloch’s were framed as Invaders, while Afghans were framed as criminals, burdon, inferior and parasites on the Pakistani economy. Punjabi’s were framed as dominant in every sphere such as politics, economy and have biased towards specific minor ethnic, racial, linguistic and regional groups.</p> Dr. Muhammad Akbar, Dr. Aasima Safdar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 12 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Intersection of Politics, the Print Media, and Young Voters: An Examination of the 2018 General Election <p>This article presents the content analysis of advertisements of major political parties in national dailies regarding mobilization of young voters. The major objective of the study was to find out the different types of advertisement appeals framed in ads to attract the youth by major political parties i.e. PML (N), PPPP and PTI. The design of the study was descriptive. Three national dailies i.e. Nawa-i-Waqt, Jang and Express, from January 24, 2018 to July 24, 2018 were taken as study area. The sample of the study was taken through purposive sampling technique. Major findings revealed that political parties allocated significant proportion of their political ads for youth. PTI paid the highest attention to young voters and got a huge success in general election 2018. However, PML (N) used the least proportion. On the basis of research, a major recommendation of vital role of print media was provided by the researcher.</p> Aisha Anwar, Dr. Sajid Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 13 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An Analysis of Flouting Maxims in "The Magician's Elephant" Movie 2023 <p>communication to be followed in order to avoid any misinterpretation. This study focuses on four maxims based on Grice’s cooperative principle, given by H.P. Grice in his 1975 theory. The main objective is to find the characters who are flouting the Grice maxims in their conversations or dialogues. Conversational maxims affect our social interaction and flouting of these maxims can lead to false interpretation of intended meaning. This study will enhance better understanding of using maxims in daily life and how one can avoid flouting of these maxims to refrain oneself from being judged on the basis of wrong interpretations. The research is based on the descriptive-qualitative method. The data for this research was taken from the script of the movie. The researchers have collected the data from the movie in the form of dialogue and analysed the four maxims. The findings imply that the maxims are flouted 39 times in the movie. The maxim of quantity was flouted 10 times, or 25%. The maxim of quality was flouted 10 times, or 25%. The maxim of manner was flouted 10 times, or 25%. The maxim of relevance was flouted seven times, or 23%. The most influential maxim flouted is the maxim of quantity. This study reveals that conversations play a vital role in our lives, as it is evident from the results that, due to the flouting of the maxim of quality and quantity, the message was not conveyed in a meaningful way. In order to avoid such ambiguities, one should follow the maxims of Grice to delve into an appropriate conversation.</p> Iram Sagheer, Tehreem Nadeem, Javeria Nasir Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 13 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Mediating Effect of Parental Control on Social Withdrawal, Academic Procrastination, and Maladaptive Perfectionism in Young Adults and Adolescents <p>This study aimed to examine the interplay between social withdrawal, parental control, academic procrastination, and/ or maladaptive perfectionism. Social withdrawal is associated with academic procrastination and maladaptive perfectionism while parental control plays an important role in relating social withdrawal, academic procrastination and maladaptive perfectionism. Adolescents and young adults including male (52.4%) and female (47.6%) from different Universities and Colleges of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa completed standardized questionnaires i.e., Parenting Control Scale (PCS), Adult Self-Report (ASR), Tuckman Procrastination Scale (TPS) and Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS). Descriptive and Mediation Analysis was performed. There was a significant association between social withdrawal, parental control and academic procrastination (B = .129, p &lt;.05). Furthermore, the findings also indicated a significant association between social withdrawal, parental control and maladaptive perfectionism (B = .271, p &lt;.05). The findings suggest that parental control reduced the impact of social withdrawal on academic procrastination and maladaptive perfectionism.</p> Tariq Ahmed, Xing Qiang, Mudassar Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sat, 13 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Factors Influencing Absenteeism among Nurses of a Tertiary Care Hospital of Lahore <p>Objective of the study is to assess the factors influencing absentism among nurses of a Tertiary Care Hospital of Lahore. Absenteeism in nursing, characterized by an employee's complete absence from work for a day, poses a significant challenge for Nurse Managers. A quantitative cross-sectional study explored absenteeism determinants among nurses in Lahore's public sector. A sample of 114 staff nurses from a tertiary healthcare facility was selected using convenience sampling. The result of study showed that Health problems dominate as the primary factor (40.1%), emphasizing the substantial impact on the situation. Work environment (22.5%) and personal/family issues (26.5%) also play significant roles, highlighting the multifaceted nature of the problem. The study concluded that Health problems, working conditions, personal and family matters, and stress are identified as key factors contributing to absenteeism. To reduce absenteeism among nurses, enhance working conditions and time management training should be provide.</p> Bushra Ashraf, Rehana Ashraf Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Experiences of Teachers at Multi Grade Classrooms at Special Education Schools <p>This study examines the experiences of teachers in multi-grade classrooms within special schools in Punjab, Pakistan. The aim is to identify the challenges and practices by the teachers during multi grade teaching. This was a descriptive study and quantitative method was used.Theresearch involved 230 participants as sample from special institutions in Punjab.Convenient sampling method was used to collect data. A self designed instrument was developed after intensive review of literature and validity from eminent field experts. Participants completed a survey questionnaire, and the collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicate that teachers encounter significant challenges in multi-grade teaching within special schools, including managing different levels of learning, insufficient resources, lack of training, classroom management issues, instructional strategies, assessment difficulties, and curriculum concerns.The conclusions drawn suggested that addressing these challenges requires providing support, allocating resources, and improving classroom management practices. It also recommended enhancing professional development opportunities and designing a curriculum that promotes inclusivity and caters to the needs of students in multi-grade classrooms.</p> Muhammad Usman Khalid, Dr. Afaf Manzoor, Asifa Rashid Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Translation and Validation of Lasher and Faulkender Anxiety about Aging Scale (AAS) among Pakistani Adults <p>This study aimed to validate the Lasher and Faulkender Anxiety about Aging Scale (AAS) among 312 Pakistani adults aged 35 to 65. Data was collected from Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa and Punjab. Covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM) in Amos confirmed factorial validity, with all items having standardized regression loadings exceeding 0.60. Construct reliability, assessed through a composite reliability index, surpassed criteria in each factor and overall AAS. Discriminant validity, evaluated using Average Variance Extracted (AVE), was satisfactory. The Urdu version demonstrated strong internal consistency (Anxiety about Aging overall = .93, Fear of Aging = .86, Fear of Physical Changes = .87, Fear of Loss = .86, Fear of the Elderly = .85). Significant correlations with subjective happiness, depression, anxiety, and stress supported convergent and divergent validity. Overall, the Urdu AAS is a psychometrically sound and reliable tool for measuring anxiety about aging in the Pakistani context.</p> Sana Afsar, Samia Khalid, Mishal Shaheen Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Analyzing the Effects of Polygyny on First-Wives among Pashtun Community in Quetta, Pakistan <p>The current study examines the concept of polygyny, which refers to the practice of having two or more spouses simultaneously. Despite, of its exixtence in Pashtun population, there was still a lack of scholarly research on the subject. This study aimed to investigate the effects of polygyny on first-wives in terms of their emotional relationships, family dynamics, and financial well-being.Consequently, the researcher opted qualitative technique to examine the experiences of first wives.The researcher has selected population from Quetta using snowball sampling. A total of twenty interviews were done by in-depth interviews, adhering to the principles of data saturation.Thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. The findings highlighted that polygyny resulted in distant, nervous, and broken relationships with first wives. This study uncovered an adverse environment characterized by a lack of emotional and financial support for first wives, leading to maladjustment. The present study only determined the effects of polygyny on first-wives.Moreover, the future researchers must investigate the different age’s people in this area such as children, adolescents.</p> Rubina Kakar, Zakia Jamil, Safia Habib Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Wed, 17 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring the Relationship between School Leaders’ Emotional Labour Experiences and Work Engagement <p>The current research deals with emotional aspect of school leaders in which they have to deal with various situations. The purpose of this particular research is to distinguish the association regarding the school leaders’ emotional labour and work engagement. The researcher used the correlation research design. The school leaders of public sectors elementary and secondary schools were the population of the study. The researcher utilized multistage sampling method. The researcher collected the data through online questionnaires. The statistical techniques used for quantitative data analysis was Pearson product moment correlation. The outcomes of the research study showed that those school leaders who conceal their sentiments; they feel stresses and it also affects their work engagement. Those school leaders who showed their actual sentiments they are more committed towards their work and it also increases their work engagement. The education department should organize workshops and seminars for school leaders’ to cope with work related stress.</p> Ambreen Iftikhar, Abida Nasreen Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An In-Depth Analysis of Linguistic Deficiencies: A Study Investigating Writing Errors of Undergraduate Students from Three Public Universities in Pakistan <p>The ability to construct cohesive sentences and paragraphs requires mental work, which makes it an essential and adaptable language competency. Writing, though challenging, is taught to students in order to support the growth and application of their writing abilities, not just in the classroom but additionally in postsecondary education and future career pursuits. Beyond the confines of the classroom, writing is essential for children to express their needs, feelings, and viewpoints. Writing instruction consists of four key stages: planning, creating, rewriting, and editing. These steps represent one of the four core language skills. This study deals with the analysis of writing errors made by undergraduate students from three Public Universities of Pakistan. The main objective of the study was to highlight and analyze writing errors from essays written by 45 students. The researcher used qualitative method for this study. After analyzing errors from essays a total of 635 errors were identified which were sub-divided into 18 categories. The findings of the study show the most repeated errors were wrong usage of tense and punctuation marks. Furthermore, identifying the errors made by Pakistani university students proved important since it highlighted the issues they are facing and enabled the instructors to provide the students feedback to improve their writing.</p> Maleeha Nazim, Sadaf Iftikhar, Adeela Madad Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Role of Gender, Age, and Family System on Neuroticism, Attachment, and Well-being among Young Adults <p>This study focuses on investigating the relationship between personality traits, attachment styles, and psychological well-being in young adults in Pakistan. The research explores the moderating effects of gender, age, and family system on these relationships. The study employed a quantitative approach and a correlational cross-sectional research design. Data was collected using questionnaires from 274 university students aged 18 to 30. The instruments used included the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) to measure personality traits, the Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) to assess attachment styles, and the Psychological Wellbeing Scale (PWS) to measure psychological well-being. The results showed that gender moderated the relationship between personality traits and adult attachment styles, with females demonstrating a stronger association. Gender also acted as a moderator between neuroticism and close attachment style, buffering the relationship. Age was found to moderate the relationship between neuroticism and self-acceptance, weakening the association as individuals grew older. The family system, particularly joint family systems, was found to moderate the relationship between neuroticism and personal growth, strengthening the association. These findings have implications for understanding and promoting psychological well-being in young adults and highlight the importance of considering gender, age, and family system in psychological research and interventions.</p> Maria Muzaffar Janjua, Aaisha Shaukat, Farah Shamim Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Endowing Teachers: The Insightful Effects of Soft Skills on Work Performance of Primary School Teachers <p>The current study is designed to explore the effect of soft skills on work performance of primary school teachers. Soft skills are inevitable for the success of any individual and professional. Primary school teachers are the foundation makers of any nation and have a great responsibility to imprint their students. The study was descriptive, a cluster random sampling technique was employed and data was collected from primary school teachers working in 245 schools which were selected as sample clusters for the study. A total of 930 questionnaires were distributed of which 840 responded. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was done. Study results showed that soft skills have a significant effect on and positive correlation with the work performance of teachers. Soft skills mastery guarantees well-rounded and adjustable teachers, proficient in interpersonal dynamics and professional settings so it is recommended that initiatives must be taken to develop soft skills in teachers.</p> Shaista Sahar, Naeem Ullah, Mazhar Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 A Comments-Based Qualitative Study of Clinical Supervision in Clinical Psychology Internship in Universities of Pakistan <p>The current study aims to examine the challenges associated with clinical supervision during a traineeship in clinical psychology. In Pakistan's clinical psychology training history, This is the first-ever comments-based qualitative study. A total of 175 participants, comprising 41 clinical supervisors and 134 current clinical psychology students enrolled in an advanced diploma or master's degree programs. Interviews were conducted to gather the data, which was then analyzed in Nvivo. Four main themes, the experience of learning, learning barriers, experience of applying, and relational aspects along with their subthemes emerged The findings of the present study will be helpful in improving the learning environment in clinical supervision for the clinical psychology training programs. To improve the enduring learning possibilities for the concerned as described above, the identified learning barriers must be removed.</p> Dr. Shakir Iqbal, Dr. Aftab Hussain, Anees Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Cultural Struggle and Hybridity: An In-Depth Examination of Dead Men's Path by Chinua Achebe <p>This study delves into the theme of hybridity in Chinua Achebe's "Dead Men's Path," exploring the intricacies of cultural struggle depicted in the narrative. Through archival investigation and a comprehensive review of scholarly articles across various platforms, the research adopts a multifaceted approach to unravel the layers of hybridity in the text. "Dead Men's Path" argues against interfering with others' faith, emphasizing the potential harmful repercussions and portraying a significant struggle arising from such interference. The study also sheds light on the overlooked aspect of shifting myths during the process of development, urging the importance of respecting diverse beliefs without disparaging any religion. The findings reveal significant contributors to hybridity in the narrative, including cultural differences, the impact of modernization, traditional aspects, demoralizing beliefs, and resultant cultural conflicts. This exploration extends beyond a mere analysis of hybridity, offering insights into broader cultural dynamics and the repercussions of clashing beliefs.</p> Rizwana Soomro, Suhail Ahmed Solangi, Irfan Ali Soomro Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Role of ChatGPT as AI English Writing Assistant: A Study of Student’s Perceptions, Experiences, and Satisfaction <p>The purpose of this study is to look into the subtle aspects of students' involvement with ChatGPT, an AI-powered English Writing Assistant, with an emphasis on their views, experiences, and general satisfaction. As developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) keep evolving the educational environment, the use of AI as an English Writing Assistant has received attention for its capability to improve students' writing skills. Through a mixed-method approach, including surveys, interviews, and usability testing, this research aims to unveil the intricate factors that shape students' attitudes toward ChatGPT. By exploring the user interface, adaptability to individual writing styles, and the perceived impact on writing proficiency, the study seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of the tool's effectiveness. The findings of the study reveal that students have an overall favorable opinion of ChatGPT, and many of them are happy with the help it provides with different parts of creating content in English. In future studies, researchers should investigate the cumulative impact of ChatGPT use on students' autonomous ability to write, taking into account a variety of learning environments and possible ethical considerations such as plagiarism.</p> Zamzam Bibi, Dr. Aqsa Atta Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Sun, 21 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Examining the Educational Implications of Federal Board's Objective Papers on English Language Proficiency in Secondary and Higher Secondary Classrooms in Islamabad <p>Both vocabulary and grammar are considered to be the cornerstone of any language learning, particularly L2 or EFL. The current study investigates the Impact of the Objective Paper of the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Islamabad on Secondary School and Higher Secondary School Certificates. The research investigates a thorough analysis of the content given in the objective paper. The main areas of focus in the study are “Vocabulary-based Questions and Identification of Parts of Speech-based Questions.” There is a third part of the question which is considered meagerly a Spelling-based Question. The data for this study is gathered through past papers from 2014-2018 for SSC and HSSC FBISE Islamabad through its official website whereas a questionnaire is framed to get the responses from the participants aged between 14-16 years for Secondary School Certificates and 17-19 years old for Higher Secondary School Certificate. The study is significant in digging out the role the objective papers of FBISE (Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Islamabad) play in promoting proficiency in the English Language of the students. Qualitative analysis is done with the help of Thematic Analysis and the numeric factual data are presented with the help of graphs. The results of the study show that the objective paper plays a great role in teaching the skills of the English Language.</p> Jamshaid Anjum, Dr. Saqlain Hassan, Rabia Naz Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 22 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 An Analysis of Anwar Zeb's Contributions and Perspectives on the Revival of the Democratic Students Federation <p>This research paper examines the significance of the Democratic Students Federation (DSF), a left-wing student political organisation, focusing on its historical origins and revival in the 1980s. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar established the DSF in 1950, but the Pakistani government banned it in 1954. In 1981, Anwar Zeb and his associates started the revival of DSF in partnership with the Communist Party of Pakistan (CPP). The study uses an in-depth, semi-structured interview with Anwar Zeb to explore his contributions and perspectives on the resurgence of DSF. The research incorporates various methods such as historical resources, thematic analysis, archival record comparison, and ethical considerations. The study concludes that DSF emerged as a symbol of opposition to the repressive Zia dictatorship, and despite efforts to suppress it, the organisation remained resilient. Anwar Zeb later joined the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and is currently active in politics. The paper recommends the reinstatement of student unions as a means to address ethnic tensions, harassment, discrimination, and extremist ideologies and to cultivate competent political leaders for Pakistan's future.</p> Khayam Zeb, Habib Ullah Nawab Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 22 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Undergraduate Students’ Use of Communication Strategies: A Case Study of Thall University, Bhakkar <p>undergraduate English students of Thall University, Bhakkar. The study employed mixed-method approach by employing both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data. A questionnaire was administered to 100 undergraduate students who were randomly selected from English Department. Subsequently, an interview type communicative activity was carried out with the participants. The data were analysed following the taxonomy of Celce-Murcia, Dornyei, and Thurrell (1950). The findings indicated that the students use four principal and ten sub-types of communicative strategies while communicating in English. The major strategies Include avoidance, achievement, stalling/time-gaining, and interactional. Certain other sub strategies include such as code switching, topic avoidance, message abandonment, using fillers, gambits, and hesitation devices. The study offered certain recommendations for further studies and also presented pedagogical implications.</p> Iqra Bashir, Dr. Abdus Samad, Hassan Alamgeer Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Eliot's Poetic Work, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” A Psychoanalytic Inquiry <p>The Kleinian Psychoanalytic Theory Approach aims to uncover the hidden magical relationship in Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." This approach focuses on the protagonist's identity inconsistency and the hidden talents in a background filled with pain. The methodology involves a hermeneutical approach, analyzing the theme of psychoanalytic with paranoid-schizoids positions from Melanie Klein's paper. The findings reveal a complex network of motifs, character interplay, and psychological elements beneath the surface in "The Love Song." The Kleinian psychoanalytical approach reveals the underlying messages for the conflicts, which are carried out by the protagonist, who transmutes in various forms due to his desire over what he wants. Further analysis of other works or a cross-field approach could provoke numerous points for consideration about the divine in Prufrock's character.</p> Muhammad Haroon Jakhrani, Madiha Yousaf, Amina Humayun Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 A Study of Poppies in October by Sylvia Plath from the Lens of Critical Discourse Analysis <p>This paper intends to scrutinise the chosen poem i.e. Poppies in Octoberby keeping in view the basic postulates of CDA. The purpose of CDA is to highlight the power relations at work in the text. The analytical framework of the study is situated within the footsteps of Fairclough’s Three Dimensional Model of Critical Discourse Analysis (1995).The study comprises of qualitative analysis and involves the description, interpretation and explanation of the discursive structures within the text of the poem.The discussion section of the poem reveals the underlying meaning of the poem which is about the dichotomy between life and death and the oppression of women in an unappreciative patriarchal world. The brief poem by Plath is laden with meaning. The textual, discursive and social practices in the poem reveal a lot about the gruesomely violentand melancholic tone of the poem. The study recommends incorporating such analyses in ESL classrooms because it can foster a holistic approach to language learning by combining linguistic proficiency with cultural understanding and critical thinking skills.</p> Dr. Sadaf Siddiq, Ezzah Shakil, Maria Batool Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 26 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Identification of University Teachers’ Academic Commitment in Personality Development towards Academic Excellence <p>The main objective of the present study was to identify the university teachers’ academic commitment in personality development towards academic excellence. The study was survey and descriptive in nature. The quantitative and qualitative method were adopted. The explanatory sequential technique was used. Population of study comprised; Chairpersons/ HODs, faculty members of various departments of KFUEIT Rahim Yar Khan. The random sampling technique was used. The sample of study comprised of Chairpersons/ HODs/ Directors, 40 Faculty members 280 and total sample was 320. The interviews were recorded personally by the researcher which was a primary source of data. The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended and open-ended parts were used. The validity and reliability of tools were used for pilot testing. The study concluded that majority of HODs and Teachers don’t teach actively in well-spaced and fully air-conditioned classroom. The study recommended that well-spaced and fully air-conditioned classrooms may be provided in the public sector universities of Pakistan.</p> Saira Shafqat, Dr. Jam Muhammad Zafar, Dr. Mazhar Hussain Bhadroo Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 26 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on the Symptoms of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder of Pakistani Female Adolescents <p>Premenstrual emotive, cognitive, and bodily symptoms affect many of females in the course of reproductive years, with most indications occurring during the final premenstrual phase and subsiding a few days after menses begins (Pearlstein, Yonkers, Fayyad, &amp; Gillespie, 2005) The aim of the study to see the effectiveness of Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) of young adolescents. The sample size of N= 16 participants (M=14.90, SD= 0.86) was selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group and control group, having 8 participants in each group. The base line score was taken by using Cuestionario del Trastorno Disfórico Premenstrual – DSM-5 (CTDP –DSM-5) and checklist on experiences related to menstruation (CEM). The experimental group received 7 individual sessions utilizing CBT intervention. The results suggested a significant contribution of CBT in decreasing the symptoms of PMDD. The scores of pre and post testing (p &lt;0.05) of experimental group verified the efficacy of CBT in treating the symptoms of PMDD and increasing the positive attitude and experience related to menstruation. The present study makes important implications regarding the use of the CBT intervention as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. And in future researches the role of anxiety and depression should be focused because PMDD leads to the different psychological disorders</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Madiha Azam, Sidra Shoaib Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Fri, 26 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Audience Perceptions of News Media Trustworthiness in the Digital Age <p>This study aims to investigate the evolving landscape of audience perceptions regarding the trustworthiness of news media in the digital age. As technology continues to shape the way information is disseminated, consumed, and shared, it becomes crucial to explore the factors influencing public trust in news sources. Through a comprehensive analysis of user attitudes, consumption patterns, and the impact of digital platforms, this research seeks to provide valuable insights into how news media can adapt and enhance their credibility in an era marked by rapid technological advancements and information abundance. In the contemporary Digital Age, where information dissemination is profoundly influenced by technological advancements, this study seeks to investigate the evolving perceptions of audience trust in news media. As the digital landscape continues to reshape the way information is consumed and shared, it becomes imperative to comprehend the intricate factors that impact public trust in news sources. Traditional news media outlets are encountering challenges to their credibility due to the accessibility and abundance of information facilitated by digital platforms. The background of this study underscores the necessity of exploring audience attitudes and understanding how changes in media consumption patterns correlate with shifts in perceptions of news media trustworthiness.<br>Employing a comprehensive methodology, the study integrates surveys, content analysis, and user behavior studies. By collecting data on audience attitudes, information sources, and technology usage, the research aims to unveil the intricate dynamics that influence trust in news outlets in the contemporary digital environment. This study Emphasizes strategies for transparent communication, technological integration, and adaptation to evolving audience expectations.</p> Sadam Hussain, Dr. Malik Adnan, Rana Babar Sohail Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Social Media Influence on Green Marketing: Promoting Sustainable Products and Practices <p>This study examines how Social Media's Effects on Green Marketing Practices (SIGMP) influence sustainable product purchases. We sent 174 respondents structured questionnaires and utilized association and regression studies to analyze the data. The key finding is that Social Media's Influence of Green Marketing Practices (SIGMP) positively affects consumer purchase decisions. Effective social media green marketing methods affect consumers' feelings about sustainable products and what they purchase. The research helps us understand online behaviour and provides organisations with green marketing suggestions on social media. Even though the study has some helpful information, it does have some problems, like group bias and a cross-sectional design. Future research is encouraged to expand on these findings with a more diverse demographic and in different cultural contexts. The study concludes that integrating authentic and engaging green marketing strategies on social media platforms can significantly influence consumer behaviour towards sustainability.</p> Hallar Ateeq ur Rehman, Ali Nazar Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Investigating the Reading Comprehension Experiences of EFL Secondary School Learners in Sindh <p>The study aims to explore the reading comprehension experiences of secondary school EFL students in Khairpur Mir's, Sindh. Utilizing a quantitative research approach, the investigation concentrated on secondary school learners. Through a survey methodology, the researchers administered face-to-face questionnaires comprising four open-ended questions to 60 male and female participants for data collection. The gathered data underwent analysis presented in graphs. The researchers aimed to gain a deeper insight into pupils' experiences with reading in English as a foreign language, with all participants acknowledging the significant impact of these experiences on the reading skills. The findings revealed limited positive reading experiences in English, and participants indicated infrequent engagement with quality books. This trend may be associated with the relatively diminished importance of books in the lives of adults in contemporary society. Moreover, the research provides recommendations to address reading challenges affecting the experiences of foreign language learners, offering valuable insights for decision-makers in academia, individuals, teachers, and other stakeholders.</p> Mushtaque Ahmed Solangi, Zaheer Ahmed Bango, Muhammad Hassan Abbasi Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Problem Solving Skills through Mathematical Vocabulary and Formative Feedback: Evidence from Grade VII Private Schools <p>The objective is to understand what teachers should be acquainted with to facilitate the development of problem-solving proficiency in their students. Another objective is to inquire how a teacher is informed by a comprehensive review of the research literature in mathematics education. There has been a significant focus on effective mathematics instruction.This article employs a category-based approach to examine the types of knowledge deemed essential for effective mathematical problem-solving instruction. This paper presents the findings of an action research study conducted by a teacher educator and researcher. This study sought to uncover the intentions of Grade VII school teachers.<br>The research utilized various data sources, including reflective journals, semi-structured interviews, field notes, lesson observations, and reports. A two-stage model was proposed to guide the planning and execution of action research projects in schools. The paper concludes that formative feedback is crucial for the learning of challenging skills like problem-solving in Mathematics. It then observed their actions concerning formative feedback on midterm exams in courses that claim to teach problem-solving. The study found that action research is a highly effective approach for enhancing professional development; however, it also highlighted the challenges associated with implementing this methodology in real-world educational settings. It is essential for teachers to have a deep understanding of mathematical problem-solving, not only for their own proficiency as problem solvers, but also to guide students in developing their problem-solving skills.<br>The study recommends that a mathematics teacher's expertise in teaching problem-solving must extend beyond their general ability to solve problems.</p> Laiqa Maqsood, Noor-e-Sahar, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeel Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Effectiveness of Academic Leadership in Crises Resolution of Universities of Azad Jammu & Kashmir <p>This research study aimed to investigate the relationships between academic leadership and crises resolution in universities, specifically focusing on the Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Bagh and the University of PoonchRawalakot in Pakistan. The study population comprised M. Phil/MS level teachers and students; the primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of academic leadership in crisis resolution within these universities. A descriptive methodology was employed, and questionnaires were used as the primary data collection tool. The sample size consisted of 61 teachers and 167 students, selected through a Simple Random Sampling technique. The researcher used a questionnaire for both the teachers and students as the instrument of the study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS, Simple Regression Analysis was employed to examine the effectiveness of academic leadership and correlations utilized to identify relationships between variables. The results from the correlation analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between academic leadership and crises resolution. . Furthermore, the regression analysis demonstrated a significant effect of Leadership on the outcome variable Crises, highlighting the importance of strong leadership in crisis management. The study has implications for university administrators and policymakers, emphasizing the importance of nurturing and developing leadership skills within the academic context. By enhancing academic leadership, universities can improve their crisis resolution capabilities and minimize the potential impact of crises on the stakeholders.</p> Sadia Khan, Darakhshan Siraj, Syeda Razia Batool Bukhari Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Multimedia's Impact on Education: A Study on the Teaching and Learning Process <p>This study investigates the use of multimedia in improving the teaching and learning process in Pakistan. Information and communication technology has an impact on both student involvement and academic achievement. The study also investigates the possible obstacles and constraints of incorporating multimedia into Pakistan's education system. The findings of the study will be used to inform future policy decisions and educational practices in Pakistan's education system, ultimately aiming to improve academic performance.This study's evidence was gathered from primary sources, including staff and students from public and private educational institutions. The study's evidence was gathered from primary sources, including staff and students from public and private educational institutions, in order to ensure comprehensive and diverse data. The comprehensive and diverse data collected from these primary sources was crucial for the study's findings. Without this data, the study would not have been able to accurately analyze and draw conclusions.</p> Wakeel Ahmed Otho, Samra Iqbal, Shahbaz Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Tue, 30 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Exploring the Awareness of Dissociative Identity Disorder through Pakistani Drama Serial Ishq Zahe Naseeb <p>Dissociative disorders are a group of conditions that involve disruption in memory, awareness, identity and perception leading to impairment in social functioning, employment and interpersonal relationships of an individual. DID starts in early childhood and disrupts normal developmental stages. The child struggles to establish a subjective unitary sense of self. This unusual and thought-provoking play addresses psychological depths in addition to romantic themes. This study aims to explore the awareness of dissociative identity disorder through the Pakistani drama serial ‘Ishq Zahe Naseeb’ and also understand of portrayal of disorder in the drama, among people. It includes 15 male and 15 female participants divided into three categories; undergraduate, graduate and working. It appears that there is more awareness among undergraduate participants regarding the disorder after watching the drama as compared to graduated and working participants. Participants in these categories stated that disorder is portrayed negatively in the drama.</p> Muhammad Manshoor Hussain Abbasi, Fatima Rashid, Saman Talat Copyright (c) 2024 Annals of Human and Social Sciences Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0500