Exploring Ethnic Discrimination and Hate Speech in Online Political Discourses: A Comprehensive Analysis from the Pakistani Context
Keywords:Ethnic Hate Speech, Facebook, Political Discourse, Thematic Analysis
This article establishes the presence of ethnic, racial and linguistic based hate content on politically oriented Facebook pages and as well explores prominent themes within these hate discourses to understand the promotion and propagation of ethnic, racial and linguistic based hate, intolerance and radicalization. A total of 94 Facebook post were purposefully collected and thematically analyzed with the help of NVIVO 12. The major theme revealed that ethnic diversification was framed as curse and threat for social harmony and development of the society. In online political discourses, specific ethnic, racial and linguistic groups were framed as “others” and “responsible” for destruction of social, cultural and political spheres of society. In these online discourses, specific groups were stereotyped and discriminated in much negative, disgusted hateful manner through directly demonizing with abusive language and derogatory remarks and dehumanized through comparing with specific animals like dogs, pigs etc. Different ethnic groups were discriminated and stereotyped on the basis of “Us vs Them” such as Baloch’s were framed as Invaders, while Afghans were framed as criminals, burdon, inferior and parasites on the Pakistani economy. Punjabi’s were framed as dominant in every sphere such as politics, economy and have biased towards specific minor ethnic, racial, linguistic and regional groups.
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