Forming Derivatives in Hindko Language: A Morpho-Syntactic Analysis


  • Shahid Hussain Mir Lecturer, Department of English, University of Kotli, AJK, Pakistan



Nominative Derivatives, Semantic, Syntactic, The Active Participle, The Form Of Exaggeration, The Instrumental Noun, The Locative Noun, The Passive Participle, The Qualificative Adjective


Hindko is an Indo-Aryan Language. The current study aims to investigate the formation of nominative derivatives in Hindko by doing a multi-level analysis in the light of a contemporary etymological perspective. The study categorizes these derivatives in terms of syntactic and semantic aspects. The study employs a multi-level approach to analyzing the derivatives by analyzing prosodic phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantic levels. The study uses the historical literature of the language, the daily conversations of the native speakers, and note-taking techniques to record the data. The study categorizes the verb forms of Hindko into 18 classes, from which nominal derivatives are derived. The verbs are classified into different categories according to their semantic and syntactic behavior. The study shows that, semantically, the verbs share meanings with each other and are also similar in their semantic functions. The study finds that a morphological stem-based approach is used for the derivatives. Prosodically, the study discovers the effects on the stem of the derivatives. Moreover, the study concludes that in Hindko there are six types of nominal derivatives: the active participle, the passive participle, the form of exaggeration, the instrumental noun, the qualificative adjective, and the locative noun. The research reflects the Form I verb stem as input for forming the six types of nominal derivative (the output). The study recommends a further in-depth analysis from syntactic perspective.





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How to Cite

Hussain Mir, S. (2022). Forming Derivatives in Hindko Language: A Morpho-Syntactic Analysis. Annals of Human and Social Sciences, 3(3), 269–282.