Effect of Analogy Based Teaching on Students ‘Chemistry Learning at Secondary School Level


  • Asma Saleem PhD. Scholar, IER, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Dr. Rafaqat Ali Akbar Professor, Institute of Education & Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan




Analogy Based Teaching, Analogy, Chemistry, Secondary School Level, Teaching


Main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of analogy-based teaching on students ‘chemistry learning at secondary school level. 21st century education ranks students’ skills for higher order thinking and flexible reasoning over memorization of disciplinary fact in science subjects. To create interest and constructive environment, effective and student-centered teaching methodologies support the better learning abilities of students. The study was conducted through true experimental pretest posttest control group design. Two equal science groups from a public school having 40 participants in each were selected through random sampling. Intervention was comprised of analogy-based teaching of selected content of chemistry book of grade 9th published by Punjab Curriculum and Text Book Board, Lahore. During 12week period of intervention, each group was received an equal amount of teaching. CG was taught through conventional teaching method and EG through analogy-based teaching. Pretest posttest were administered for data collection. Chemistry Learning Achievement Test (CLAT) was developed by the researcher to find the difference of learning between control group and experimental group. Data was analyzed through SPSS. The difference of scores of pretests and posttest was apparent from the results of ANCOVA. There was no significant difference between both groups in pretest scores. While the post-test result as significant between two groups showed the positive effect of intervention on experimental group. Important findings of the study proved that teaching with analogies supported the improvement of student’s analyzing, applying, synthesizing and evaluating skills by developing understanding of abstract concepts of chemistry. The results revealed the effectiveness of analogy - based teaching so it was suggested to science teachers to include analogies in their daily lesson plans to make teaching learning process effective, constructive and meaningful.





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How to Cite

Saleem, A., & Ali Akbar, R. (2022). Effect of Analogy Based Teaching on Students ‘Chemistry Learning at Secondary School Level. Annals of Human and Social Sciences, 3(3), 477–493. https://doi.org/10.35484/ahss.2022(3-III)46