Access to Education for Transgender Individuals in Pakistan: Cultural and Institutional Barriers
Keywords:Cultural Barriers, Institutional Barriers, Social Stigma, Teacher Education, Transgender Education
Transgender individuals face multifaceted challenges when it comes to their education in Pakistan. The objective of the study was to investigate the cultural and institutional challenges faced by transgender individuals. We designed the present qualitative study to understand their nature of challenges by immersing in real-life situations. The research design was phenomenology in nature. The participants were transgender individuals from Faisalabad. The sample consisted of eight transgender individuals selected using a snowball sampling technique. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews protocol guide, which were analysed using the thematic data analysis technique following a six-stage guide by Braun and Clarke (2006). The authors found that cultural barriers that hindered their education process in Pakistan were parental issues, social unacceptance, and social stigma. Institutional barriers that negatively affected their education were a lack of policies and legal protection in schools, inadequate teacher training, and inappropriate facilities in schools. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended comprehensive awareness programmes inside and outside educational settings for the acceptance of transgender individuals in society and schools.
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